Ivory Trade 2 week 8- Victoria Bicknell


Flannery, Maura C. “Evolution: Always New.” The American Biology Teacher, vol. 67, no. 2, 2005, pp. 113–117. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4451795.

This peer reviewed article by Flannery discusses biology and evolution. She discusses the idea of evolution and the role that humans play in said changes that we are seeing play out currently. This article may be a good starting point to understand the damage of which we are imposing on the elephants in a biological manner. They need ivory and have been evolving for centuries to have larger and sturdier tusks that are used for vital every day activities. With human interference over the last few hundred (most prominently 2009) their numbers have decreased to a point where even genetic diversity is lacking, putting a lot at stake for these creatures, elephants and rhinos alike.


Williams, Jonah M. “The Convoluted Nature of the African Ivory Trade: Possible Solutions for Curbing the Destructive Nature of Poaching and Promoting Elephant Conservation.” Consilience, no. 15, 2016, pp. 181–192. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26188764.8WEEK 9

Williams’ peer reviewed article discusses a lot of key aspects in that must be brought to light when discussing the ivory trade. The author mentions that ivory trade and the possibilities it could bring to the economy, both in africa and in china but he also notes that ivory is used for nothing more than decoration, meaning it has no real purpose to us. Secondly, the author addresses certain issues such as a possible overpopulation if the ivory trade is banned entirely and the cultural situation in which westerners know very little and have little to do with. The ivory trade is complex and there are many things to note, and this article illustrates the different sides to the ivory trade

Ivory Trade (1) - Week 8 - Varsha Ramnarine Singh

Week 8

Schmidt, Michael J., and Richard Ross. “Working Elephants.” Scientific American, vol. 274, no. 1, 1996, pp. 82–87. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24989359

In Schmidt’s article, he discusses the use of elephants in the Myanmar jungles to help transport logs for logging. When this article was published, Myanmar was one of the last countries in the world who continued the tradition of logging through the use of elephants. Through the declining population of elephants, this traditional way of life is put in danger of being lost in addition to losing the Asian elephants that remain. The suggested solution is to breed elephants to not only revive the elephant population but to keep this tradition alive. Schmidt’s article is one that highlights the consequences that come out of the ivory trade and why it should be stopped in terms of preserving the elephant population and the traditions. This would be used to further prove that the ivory trade should be stopped. 

Sekar, Nitin, et al. “In the Elephant's Seed Shadow: the Prospects of Domestic Bovids as Replacement Dispersers of Three Tropical Asian Trees.” Ecology, vol. 96, no. 8, 2015, pp. 2093–2105. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43495151

In Sekar’s article he discusses how the African forest elephant and the one horned Rhinoceros are vital to their environments. He explores how their capability to swallow and digest large fruit seeds without damaging themselves helps to fertilize and spread the seeds of many different fruit trees along with any other vegetation that they may consume. In this they play a vital role in their environments and without them it would suffer greatly. Sekar’s article is one that highlights the value that the African forest elephant and one horned Rhino play in their environment. This would be used to prove why they would benefit from the ivory trades end.





Sullivan, Jonathan, and Lei Xie. “Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet.” The China Quarterly, no. 198, 2009, pp. 422–432. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27756459.


This source is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article. It analyzes and examines the use of the internet in Chinese environmental activism. Besides allowing for the access and spread of (sometimes banned) information, the internet also plays host to electronic environmental non-governmental organizations, which do work both online and in the real world. Personal social networks (an individual’s own connections) ease the spread of activism—in information and participation, both online and in the real world. Activist networks are created and held together by a collective identity; online, hyperlinks within websites connect users to similar information and form a kind of network as well. The usage of the internet for activism and social networks affecting activism also applies to activism in the case of the Kinder Morgan pipeline, how protesters organize, and how information is spread, which relates to the planned “people” vignette of our podcast, where we will discuss activism opposing the pipeline.


Hage, Robert. “Risk, Prevention, and Opportunity: Northern Gateway and the marine environment.” Macdonald-Laurier Institute for Public Policy, Canadian Electronic Library, 2015.


This source is a scholarly one. This paper states that the entire situation surrounding the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline was fraught with misconceptions, failed aspirations, and miscommunication. Canada is more prepared for an oil spill than many think. The pipeline was meant to stretch from Bruderheim, Alberta, to Kitimat, Alaska. Concerns from fishers (including First Nations) surrounded the proposed tanker routes, as they would travel through areas of abundant fish. Any pipeline company must have a comprehensive risk management program to avoid spills or leakages—the Joint Review Panel found that Northern Gateway’s was satisfactory. Concerns from all parties were expressed over the nature of diluted bitumen, an oil that possibly sinks instead of floating in water, and agreed that more research was required. The Canada Shipping Act has strong regulations for safety with oil tankers. The Joint Review Panel approved the pipeline with 209 binding conditions. The Tanker Safety Panel found that Canada needed to be more prepared for oil spills. Multiple politicians and government workers highlighted the need to consult with and address the environmental concerns of First Nations groups, also providing economic opportunity and partnership. The Joint Review Panel found the this pipeline was in Canada’s best interest and recommended establishing a citizens’ advisory council to promote environmentally safe practices, ensure jobs for Aboriginal people along the pipeline, and ensure that First Nations can obtain equity interest in the project. The Northern Gateway Pipeline is a sort of precursor to the Kinder Morgan Pipeline and was defeated on the same grounds that Kinder Morgan could be. Investigating the Northern Gateway Pipeline shows commonalities in pipeline construction, concerns, and approval, as well as giving more information about the situation surrounding that pipeline.



Rape and Death Threats in Esports

Chalk, A. (2016, June 21). Teenage Overwatch player accused of cheating proves she's just that good with Zarya. Retrieved February 04, 2018, from https://www.pcgamer.com/teenage-overwatch-player-accused-of-cheating-proves-shes-just-that-good-with-zarya/

Teenage Overwatch player accused of cheating proves she's just that good with Zarya is a blog post created by Andy Chalk. Chalk recites the popular story of the famous female overwatch player, Kim Se Yeon, who was so good at the game that professional level players accused her of hacking. Chalk make any new insights, he just talks about the situation as a whole without critically analyzing it.


100 Women 2016: The women challenging sexism in e-sports. (2016, November 21). Retrieved February 04, 2018, from http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37992322

100 Women 2016: The women challenging sexism in e-sports is an article published by the BBC. The article goes over the huge gender pay gap in the esports community, referencing known inequalities and cases of rape threats among female professional players. Without speculating why, BBC point out that less than 5% of the billion dollar industry is comprised of women, indicating that there must be some sort of systemic inequality involed.  

The World's Opinions on Esports

C. (2016, March 06). The Latest Kentucky Riot Is Part Of A Long, Destructive Sports Tradition. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-latest-kentucky-riot-is-part-of-a-long-destructive-sports-tradition/

The Latest Kentucky Riot Is Part Of A Long, Destructive Sports Tradition is a secondary source created by Carl Bialik, a blog poster for the website, FiveThirtyEight. Using a combination of statistics and second hand accounts, Bialik complies a list of all of the sports related riots in North America since 1968. Bialik mentions that these riots usually happen when fans get upset after an "upset" (an unexpected loss), and that these riots can get violent enough to result in loss of life. This topic is interesting and relevant to my topic because even when people acknowledge the scale and relevancy of modern day esports, they fail to acknowledge that esports can influence people to do mean/violent things to other people. Thus, by drawing the connection between sports and esports, and pointing out the violence committed by passionate sports fans, I may be able to convince the reader that not only does the social space of esports matter, but that the social space in the virtual realm of esports may eventually "leak" into the real world.


Stubbs, M. (2017, December 02). Are Esports A Real Sport? Riot Games Wades Into The Debate With 'League Of Legends' Video. Retrieved February 17, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikestubbs/2017/12/02/are-esports-a-real-sport-riot-games-wades-into-the-debate-with-league-of-legends-video/#7150ca1f2486

Are Esports A Real Sport? Riot Games Wades Into The Debate With 'League Of Legends' Video is a popular source written by Mike Stubbs of Forbes magazine. In his article, Stubbs claims that whether or not esports get classified as "real sports" is irrelevant because it will likely always have a huge audience and thus, have a strong influence. This topic is important to my topic because I have to address the issue of esports being legitimate in my podcast. Many people still think that virtual athletes are just a bunch of "fat nerds" who enter small Mario Kart tournaments for small amounts of money, and before I get into the the meat of my topic, I have to convince people that esports are important, or else they probably won't care about what I have to say.

Campus Assault

Avani Dias and Nkayla Afshariyan. What is your university doing in response to sexual assault and harassment. http://www.abc.net.au/triplej/programs/hack/uni-responses/9477920

This article delivers different Universities in Australia and how they deal with the topic of sexual assault and what their specific policies are depending on the school. It was a resourceful article to compare and contrast American educational systems and how they react to different sexual assault cases as well. 

CTVNews, Laval University confronts sexual violence through workshops, art. https://montreal.ctvnews.ca/laval-university-confronts-sexual-violence-through-workshops-art-1.3807922

This article reflects on a University in Montreal, called Laval University, that dealt with a 19 year old student who was breaking and entering, as well as sexual assaulting fellow students. The way they dealt with it was through workshops, self defense classes and art that subjected clothing vs rape standards. 

Women as Supporting Characters

Robbins, R. H. (1999). Global problems and the culture of capitalism. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Global problems and the culture of capitalism is a scholarly source created by Richard H. Robbins, a well known anthropologist. In chapter 3 of he book, Robbins describes how jobs that are predominately done by women are historically seen as easier. This relates back to my topic because Mercy being seen as a relatively easy, "no skill" hero may be caused by the phenomenon that Robbins describes.


Walsh, A. (2012). Made in Madagascar: Sapphires, ecotourism, and the global bazaar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Made in Madagascar: Sapphires, ecotourism, and the global bazaar is a scholarly source created by Richard H. Robbins, a well known anthropologist. In chapter 3 of the book, Walsh briefly talks about the role of women in the sapphire trade as a supporting role. Given the harsh circumstances described in the book, and the relative ease of access women had to the mines, it strikes me as interesting that they still only played a supporting role (picking sapphires from the dirt that the men brought from the mines). I think that this extreme example of women being made into "supporting characters" may shed light on the less extreme example of women being made into "supporting characters" in Overwatch.

The Spiritual Spectrum: Religion, Law and Limits



Imagine one of your friends or colleagues starts to act out regularly. Just acting obnoxious in general, really rude, really abrasive. So much so that you have a public falling out, your entire circle no longer wants to be around this person. And just when you think  they're out of your life, they take you to court for excluding them.

Something very similar happened to a congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses when they made the decision to excommunicate Randy Wall. In April 2017, Randy Wall requested a review of this decision by the Alberta court.  By November, Wall’s former congregation appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada on the grounds that the Alberta courts did not have the jurisdiction to hear Wall’s initial case back in April.

These two cases by the Alberta and Supreme Court of Canada have raised a bit of controversy over the involvement of the court in day to day life.  Some are calling for a proper separation of church and state within Canada. When the Supreme Court made the decision to review the Alberta case hearings, an opinion piece was published in the National Post by one Barry Bussey, titled ‘Courts have no business reviewing religious decisions’.

Bussey ended his article with a clear statement against such actions. That quote reads “the law need not apply to every nook and cranny of our lives, especially religious affairs.”

So how involved is the canadian government with religious affairs? What would it look like if the law and courts never touched anything remotely religious? Is there a need for more separation of church and state in Canada?

It’s worth mentioning that Canadian Law does have some advantages for religious organizations, like tax exemption through charitable status, protection from discrimination, and the need for schools and workplaces to accommodate religious needs.

The discussion around this could go in many directions, considering how personal a topic religion is and how intense political values are as well.


ABCA. Wall v Judicial Committee of the Highwood Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses. 8 Sept.2016, www.canlii.org/en/ab/abca/doc/2016/2016abca255/2016abca255.htmlautocompleteStr=highwood%20congregation&autocompletePos=1.

This is the citation for the court case of Wall v Judicial Committee of the Highwood Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses in Alberta. The opinion piece that the episode will respond to draws on this court case, as well as an upcoming Supreme Court of Canada hearing. This is a popular source, and it documents the major events of the case in the order that they occurred. 


Allen, Marry. “Police-Reported Hate Crime in Canada, 2013.” Government of Canada, Statistics Canada, Statistics Canada, 30 Nov. 2015, www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14191-eng.htm#a16.

This is a statistics report on hate crimes in Canada. It is a popular government source. The episode will discuss the way in which the Canadian government regulates religious practices, and begins with the notion that “the government is too involved”. This statistic, as well as other information on how discrimination laws are used, will serve as evidence for another view point, in that the Canadian government is only involved when it is necessary. For example, in a situation where a citizen must prove in court that they were being discriminated against based on their religion.


Berger, Benjamin L. “Religious Diversity, Education, and the ‘Crisis’ in State Neutrality.”Canadian Journal of Law and Society / Revue Canadienne , vol. 29, no. 01, 2013, pp. 103–122., doi:10.1017/cls.2013.56.

This is a scholarly, peer reviewed source that discusses religion and education in Canada through several specific cases. The relation to the episode is that is contains an in-depth and easy to understand explanation of why catholic schools are still funded by the government while other religious minority schools are not. Or at least, the argument that was used.


Ewing , Heidi and Rachel Grady, directors. One of Us. Netflix , Netflix , 20 Oct. 2017.

This is the citation for a documentary on the Hasidic community in New York. It is a popular source. The documentary highlights a situation where the Hasidic community has its own niche judicial system within the legal system of New York, allowing them to hold hearings in a way that emphasizes their religious beliefs. Because the episode is about the law and religion, this is a perfect example of what the separation of church and state does not look like, despite the fact that generally speaking the US government is separate from any religious body.


Landau, Richard M. “Toward a Definition of Legitimate Religions.” Ontario Human Rights Commission,ww.ohrc.on.ca/en/creed-freedom-religion-and-human-rights-special-issue-diversity-magazine-volume-93-summer-2012/toward-definition-legitimate-religions.

This article is from the summer 2012  issue of the magazine Diversity, which I was only about to cite from the Ontario Human Rights Commission website. It outline the hallmarks of genuine religions, as best as the government can discern. It also sheds some light on how a group that claims to be a religion might not be recognized by the Canadian government and granted certain rights that most mainstream religions have in Canada. It also mentions two famous cults, which hints at the violent impact of some radical belief systems on the way governments have to operate in such a sensitive area as faith. This episode is about the limits of religious freedoms, or what they should be (subject to opinion), so it is imperative that safety and legitimacy of any organization is easy to discern for the discussion. This source is secondary as it draws on the authors experience with religions, government regulations of faiths and general knowledge of universal human rights. It is also a popular source.


“Policy on Preventing Discrimination Based on Creed.” Ontario Human Rights Commission, www.ohrc.on.ca/en/policy-preventing-discrimination-based-creed.

This web article outlines the religious rights of people living in Ontario which are provided by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code. It contains practical information for understanding how public spaces must accommodate certain practices, how to identify discrimination from a legal standpoint and exceptions to the rule. It is a secondary source of applicable Canadian and Ontario law on a governmental website. This source is relevant because this episode will center on the limitations of religious freedoms, and this website outlines the current state of religious freedoms as well as how society is expected to use them. It is a popular government source. 


Galanter, Marc. Cults: Faith, Healing, and Coercion. Oxford University Press, 1999.

This is an academic book on cults and techniques used within them. Because there is no universally agreed upon definition of a cult, the author uses the term charismatic group to discuss the typical, pseudo religious organizations that he wishes to investigate. Early on in the book the author demonstrates that even an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting can take on certain aspects of a charismatic group or cult. This is relevant to the episode because it illustrates the dynamics within religious or cultish communities and how the customs of such a group dictate the lives of its members. The book does focus on more outlandish ideologies and concepts, so it also provides a good look into why some governments seek to regulate or intervene with specific situations. This is a scholarly source. 


Stolzenberg, N. M. “Righting the Relationship Between Race and Religion in Law.” Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 31, no. 3, Oct. 2011, pp. 583–602., doi:10.1093/ojls/gqr014.

This article is a peer reviewed, scholarly source. The main topic is about the overlap of race and religion and the instances in which they must be examined together. It also compares the differences in American and European legal viewpoints on discrimination cases, where the author mentions that Americans tend to focus on the race and neglect religion and culture, and that Europeans focus on religion more than race and culture. Some examples are provided to illustrate this. In relation to this episode, it provides insight into multiple court cases centering around religious discrimination, and how they had to be differentiated from racial discrimination in the eyes of the court.


Friedson, Meredith L. “Psychotherapy and the Fundamentalist Client: The Aims and Challenges of Treating Jehovah’s Witnesses.” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 54, no. 2, 2014, pp. 693–712., doi:10.1007/s10943-014-9946-8.

This is a peer reviewed, scholarly article meant for those who wish to gain understanding on therapy for Jehovah’s witnesses. The relevance to the episode is that it deals with two controversial practices of Jehovah’s Witnesses, isolation and shunning. In Wall’s case he mentions that distress from the shunning of his daughter caused the incidents which led to his disfellowship. The article gives an in depth look into experience with such distress.


Dirksen, Annegret. “Children of Jehovah's Witnesses under Two Dictatorships*.” Religion, State and Society, vol. 34, no. 2, 2006, pp. 191–210., doi:10.1080/09637490600624857.

This article discusses the persecution of Witnesses in Germany under Nazi rule and German Democratic Republic (GDR). It is a peer reviewed, scholarly source. This is relevant to the episode because it is a clear representation of  deeply negative government involvement with Witness children, on a much larger scale than the Wall case.  


Knox, Zoe. “Writing Witness History: The Historiography of the Jehovah's Witnesses and the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.” Journal of Religious History, vol. 35, no. 2, 2011, pp. 157–180., doi:10.1111/j.1467-9809.2010.01030.x.

This is a peer reviewed, scholarly article which outlines the founding of the Jehovah’s Witnesses religious group, their influence on the acceptance of societies, and notorious controversies. It provides a general information on the history and literature of the group, as well as examples of how people come to be disfellowshiped.


Bodnaruk, Zenon M, et al. “Meeting the Clinical Challenge of Care for Jehovah’s Witnesses.” Transfusion Medicine Reviews, vol. 18, no. 2, 2004, pp. 105–116., doi:10.1016/j.tmrv.2003.12.004.

This article discusses one of the most controversial legal debates in relation to Witnesses; blood transfusion refusal. It provides some detail as to the legal process of refusal, which can include trials and hearings for families who must decide for a child in a life threatening situation. It is relevant because of the legal scenarios that can arise when religious beliefs prevent a person from certain actions. It is a peer reviewed, scholarly article.


Why we need resources for mental health.

“Margaret Wente.” The Globe and Mail, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/margaret-wente/ February 25, 2018.


This is a short profile on Margaret Wente that tells the history of her career.  It states that she is an award-winning columnist who has a history in editing.  She also has an MA in English and has won many journalism awards.  I think that this information is important because having more context on who the author for the opinion piece is.  When presenting the opinion piece in my podcast I think that it is essential to have a short description on the author because some listeners might not know who Margaret Wente is.


Pardy, Bruce. “Head Starts and Extra Time: Academic Accomodation on Post-secondary Exams and Assignments for Students with Cognitive and Mental Disabilities.” 25 Education and Law Journal 191. 2016. https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=258105111101104113124120002026106088038002035054002027096002014102000114002124085071043103049011103001110086098019021120106094058017008015072091006104075127001038092042101001089098116103068121126004108075000067020114116005099126112069005080126089&EXT=pdf. February 25, 2018.


This article, which was hyperlinked in Wente’s opinion piece, supports her opinion.  It states that exams and assignments are actually competitions where students battle to determine who is the best among them.  Author Bruce Pardy believes that giving accommodations to some students and not others is actually very unfair.  I wanted to include this piece in my research because I wanted to see where Wente got her information from for her opinion.  I think that having this context helps me to understand her perspective more.  Also, it will be good information for listeners to have so that they can form their own well educated opinions.

Giuliana Quinto -The dark side of #MeToo

Parker, Kathleen. “A #MeToo Backlash Is Inevitable.” The Washington Post, 2 Feb. 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/a-metoo-backlash-is-inevitable/2018/02/02/51d2d626-0860-11e8-b48c-b07fea957bd5_story.html?utm_term=.f08130d06713

This is a popular secondary source opinion piece in the Washington Post about the flawed methodology many participators in the Me Too movement seen to be contributing to. Described as a "high-tech lynch mob", many women are getting their own form of vigilante justice by using social media to publicly out their abusers and have the public attack the accused via social media. Parker argues there are many pros to the Me Too Movement, but this aspect is bound to face backlash from a legal standpoint because the accusers are bypassing fair legal treatment, taking justice into their own hands. I found this helpful in backing up part of Margaret Atwood's statement in calling the actions of the movement similar to a "witch hunt", and echoes Atwood's desire for due process in these cases. Parker also goes into detail about recent accusations that are being debated about online due to the lack of legal evidence. There appears to be a lot of "he said, she said" in these cases. and it is not a productive way to find the truth behind these cases and find true justice in the broken legal system. This would back up my point about the need for better legal accessibility and clarity regarding cases of sexual misconduct.  

Chou, Sophie. “PRI's The World: Millions say Me Too, Not Everyone is equally heard.” PRI, www.pri.org/stories/2018-01-23/millions-say-metoo-not-everyone-heard-equally. Sponsered by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the MacArthur Foundation. Partner of OZY Media.

This is a popular secondary source which features a news article and audio recording about the unheard voices in the Me Too movement. Chou does comparative research to show how celebrity voices are the loudest in this movement, not activists or assault survivors. The research is also critical of the predominately Western presence Me Too has, limiting the voices of women who endure cultural pressures and far more oppressive circumstances. The final point which I found interesting is that stories regarding Me Too are often consumed by the (typically white male) perpetrators and not female voices, which seems counter productive to a movement by and for women. I liked how this article was critical of the common media coverage on Me Too and critiqued the coverage on the movement with statistics to back it up. I could use this article to focus on voices not often heard in the common narrative and focus on those perspectives in my podcast.

Bib: The Sources of Racism - Ignorance and Slavery

Strange, Nyjah. “Ignorance Vs. Racism: A Disease In America.” The Odyssey Online, Odyssey, 31 Aug. 2017, www.theodysseyonline.com/ignorance-vs-racism.

Nyjah Strange’s article discusses the difference between racism and ignorance in America, and how often people intertwine the two. Ignorance, being the lack of knowledge on a particular topic, and racism, which is the “educated” belief that one’s race is better or lesser than another’s, and is hatred based.

This short piece discusses a very important issue which is not addresses often when discussing racism, which is the education process. It is important to educate the population on the rights and wrongs of the world, and to not strictly ridicule and isolate those who simply do not know any better.


Loewen, James W. “What Learning About Slavery Can Teach Us About Ourselves.” Teaching Tolerance, 31 Jan. 2018, www.tolerance.org/magazine/spring-2017/what-learning-about-slavery-can-teach-us-about-ourselves.

Loewen’s piece discusses the relation of slavery and racism in past and today’s teachings, noting the potential complications of teaching it today but noting that it is imperative that we learn about slavery to understand ourselves and racism today. According to Loewen, slavery has influenced many aspects of our modern lives, and ultimately gave rise to racism in form.

I agree with Loewen in regards to the relevance of slavery to racism. A common question asked about racism is how it occurred and what gave rise to its strong root in society. Racism which was legally implemented to allow people of power to dominate and own minorities, and all its principles, are the roots of racism in its pure form, and understanding it is key to understanding racism.

Franchise Filmmaking Bibliography (Week 6)

Jess-Cooke, Carolyn. Film Sequels : Theory and Practice from Hollywood to Bollywood, Edinburgh University Press, 2009. ProQuest Ebook Central. (Scholarly Journal Article)

Currently crawling into universal cinemas and  film festivals, the sequel will be persistently utilized as a vehicle to culturally diverse dialog. Also it is an important illustration, a structure by which memories and also social narratives can be made to flow cross-land over geological chronicled areas. This book's ideas should represent some of the real incredulous contexts inside which sequelisation works by exploring sequel preparation past film industry figures. 

Evers, Kevin. “Hollywood's Obsession with Blockbusters.” Harvard Business Review, Harvard Business Review, 31 July 2014, hbr.org/2013/06/hollywoods-obsession-with-blockbusters.

As concerned illustration studios get fixated on building multimovie establishments with those essential plots, unsophisticated dialogue and well-known characters that pique the interest principally of adolescent young men and foreigners, they’re subsidizing fewer dramatizations and comedies than they once did. The industry’s most rich and inventive periods weren’t determined from blockbusters; they were made by aspiring creative minds who had the plans and also the budget to help the art of cinema by contributing new styles and unique systems independent of the motion picture standard. 


Why we need resources for mental health.

Dalton, Ashleigh, et al. Suicide Prevention in Toronto. Toronto Public Health, 2014. http://books1.scholarsportal.info.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/viewdoc.html?id=/ebooks/ebooks0/gibson_cppc-chrc/2015-04-25/1/11023832#tabview=tab1. February 18, 2018.

This piece reports on suicide and suicide prevention in Toronto.  The purpose of the report is to highlight the importance of recognizing suicide as a legitimate health issue, as suicide is a leading cause of death.  From there the piece also emphasizes the importance of educating society on prevention of suicide to those who struggle with their mental health.  I chose this article because not only does it give statistics on suicide in Toronto, but it also gives information on different intervention strategies from universal, to selective, to indicated.  I think that it is important when discussing topics like suicide and mental health to offer potential solutions, so that the listeners have a better understanding of how to improve society’s perspective.


Canadian Electronic Library, Canadian Alliance of Student Associations. Student mental health: breaking down silos and busting stigmas. Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, 2013. http://books1.scholarsportal.info.ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/viewdoc.html?id=/ebooks/ebooks0/gibson_cppc-chrc/2014-06-25/1/10863646#tabview=tab0. February 18, 2018

This article puts an emphasis on the importance of improving mental health for all Canadians, but students in particular.  This is because more and more students are accessing mental health resources on campus.  This paper reports on the plan that The Canadian Alliance of Student Associations has for a pan-Canadian approach to tackle the improvement on mental health resources.  For my podcast I wanted to have a source that emphasizes the importance of having proper resources in place for those who struggle with mental health.  Especially for university students, because that was the initial target in Wente’s opinion piece.  

Episode Pitch: Striking Innocents (formerly the affects of corporal punishement) By: Darrian Langer TUTR01

Corporal Punishment

Podcast Pitch

By: Darrian Langer


     The use of corporal punishment as a tool for disciplining children is an issue that touches us all, and is a topic more sensitive than a well whipped bottom.   More than a quarter century ago the American Academy of Pediatrics linked corporal punishment to increased aggressive and destructive behavior, decreased self esteem, anxiety, depression, and even suicide.  The vast majority of experts and researchers within the scientific community agree that spanking does not work, and yet two thirds of American Parents who completed the General Social Survey in 2016, agreed with the statement “ Sometimes a child just needs a good hard spanking.”  Family psychologist and syndicated columnist John Rosemond disagrees with many of his peers in the scientific community.  In a 2018 article entitled “To spank or not to…here we go again.”  Rosemond attacks a recent wall street journal article by Susan Pinker that highlights the links between spanking and a host of future behavioural issues, eventually arriving at the conclusion that the conveyance of authority is paramount when parenting and that the occasional spanking has little affect on a child’s development.  To support his argument, Rosemund points to research claiming that occasional, moderate spankings by loving parents, is associated with not only better behavior, but also improved psychological well being.  How is it that 2 different sets of researchers can arrive at completely opposite conclusions about the affects of corporal punishment?  What is the line between moderate spanking and abuse?  And if hitting a child does indeed have negative affects on their behavior and psyche, why are so many parents still doing it and why do our laws allow it?  These are just some the questions we will consider ahead on Striking Innocents.

Lady Bird's a Cheater

Lady Bird has been a tremendous box office success since its theatrical release in November of 2017. Though Alice A. Frye, a senior lecturer in psychology at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, remains unimpressed.

In The Chronicle of Higher Education, Frye questions the film’s treatment of academic dishonesty. She points out that “Many characters — including Christine [AKA Lady Bird], the willful, complex, and lovable protagonist — commit numerous transgressions, all of which are judged and/or forgiven over the course of the movie, with one notable exception”  — academic cheating.

Frye resents what she sees as the normalization of academic cheating in the film, as Lady Bird knowingly and willfully cheats on a few different occasions in order to improve her academic standing. And it’s on the basis of this falsified academic record that she wins entrance to an elite out-of-state college.

Frye is offended by the film’s depiction of cheating as trivial, a normal means to an end. And she points to academia’s real cheating problem, with rampant paper mills and collusion hidden in private Facebook groups, exclaiming: “Cheating seems so common and accepted, it is hard to argue that it matters. Perhaps I should just tell my students that it doesn’t matter. Go ahead, cheat. May the most skilled cheater win.”

Here Frye misses a real opportunity to explore something beyond the wrongness of Lady Bird’s cheating: the role of the institution itself in fostering and even encouraging her behaviour. There’s more to this story...


I don’t mean to suggest that any of Lady’ Bird’s teachers condone her misconduct. I do believe, in fact, that there are more than a few stearn and disapproving looks of suspicion. What I mean to ask is the degree to which the film alludes to a growing critique of today’s system of education as a job-training service. In this system, education is a commodity and grades are products, teachers are storekeepers, students are customers and their misbehaviour is shoplifting.

The ideals of a liberal arts education describe a system that’s more akin to a coffee shop than a retail store. In coffee shops, consumers purchase coffee and the privileges of a seat at a table. They linger. They read, work, talk, observe, drink. And they allow themselves to be changed by this experience. It’s this change that they value. And it’s something that’s impossible to steal.

It’s possible that the prevalence of academic misconduct begs the question: what sort of shop have educators established? Lady Bird and so many other shoplifters suggest that the education shop is a retail store. ....

Stephanie Bell

Dr. Bell is the Associate Director of York University's Writing Centre and an Assistant Professor in the Writing Department's Professional Writing degree program. She spends her time devising ways of using critical pedagogy to support students' understanding of and commitment to academic and professional integrity. The podcast course is a result (and continuation) of one such experiment.

Why Racism is still very much alive

The Recent H&M Marketing Scandal


Hosie, Rachel. "The Parents Of The Boy At The Centre Of The 'Racist' H&M Hoodie Storm Have Spoken Out". The Independent, 2018, http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/hm-hoodie-racism-model-parents-terry-frank-mango-h-and-m-a8160116.html. Accessed 3 Feb 2018.


Due to the recent spur that went viral with H&M marketing mistake that has been viewed as an act of Racial profiling. The parents of the child who was viewed modeling in a "Coolest monkey in the jungle" hoodie have spoken out. After the photo of the child went viral, the company faced a lot of backlash from negative trends on social media, endorsement deals with various celebrities bringing their partnership to an end because of the effect this could have on their own self as a brand and the days followed by with many protests within their stores from within the United States to as far as South Africa. The parents of the child, names Liam Mango have come out to say "I wouldn’t see such a connection to anything other than my son modeling a shirt" in a recent interview with ITV. These remarks by the parents have been viewed differently by the people of color community. Right now the community stands divided between seeing this situation as "not a big deal/mistake" and rather condemning the behavior of various people who acted profoundly in H&M stores which forced many of them to close down and people who see the situation as a reason for H&M to be racist and hurt their own brand. Racism remarks have been viewed everywhere from department stores to politics and sports and until the black community can stand together and continue this fight rather than being divided then racism would continue to win on.


The King: How far have we come?

"Martin Luther King, Jr., Model Of An American Patriot". The White House, 2018, https://www.whitehouse.gov/articles/martin-luther-king-jr-model-american-patriot/. Accessed 3 Feb 2018.

Photo from Pixabay. Search tag "Racism"

"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.’" are words by Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. almost every grade school child can recite, hopefully. Today I take you on a journey 55 years back to 1963 when the war on Racism was deep into battle, that day was a win for the people of color, although that win was just a fight. How far have we come in the world today? As a black journalist, I can tell you that as the world takes a step forward in the war to defeat racism, the world, particularly as what we depict as the "Western world" takes 3 steps back. Kings greatest legacy as a civil right activist was making the world see that all man is equal no matter the amount of pigment in our skin. Fast forward to 2018 and there are still people, going Scott free even after the murders of Trayvon Martin down to Sandra Bland have still not received their justice. The world is cruel is what my parents keep telling me, a black person from a fairly good background, who loves to have a voice in social opinion is the oppressors biggest enemy. It's another and there would be more fatalities and organizations forcing us to keep quiet but every year we rise stronger together because black is beautiful, white is beautiful, hate is unnecessary and together is the only way we can be stronger.  



White Supremacy still casts a shadow over the trump presidency

Shugerman, Emily. "White Supremacy Still Casts A Shadow Over The Trump Presidency After A Year Of Controversy". The Independent, 2018, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/trump-white-supremacy-first-year-charlottesville-shithole-countries-president-embrace-racism-a8166821.html. Accessed 10 Feb 2018.

Lesa Webb of Los Angeles, California, holds up a sign before marching in the 32nd Annual Martin Luther King, Jr march and parade in Denver, Colorado JASON CONNOLLY/AFP/Getty Image

With the reference to Mexican as "Rapists", preventing Muslims from entering the United States to abandoned promises. The 45th President of the United States of America, Donald J. Trump has certainly had a roller coaster 12 months. It has been said Trump won his presidency with the crying of white supremacists and this could not be any truer especially after he blamed a white supremacist rally on "Both Sides". A misogynic liar, Trump clearly states he is "the least racist person you'll ever meet" but his actions are clearly perpendicular to his words. When asked by CNN’s Jake Tapper if he would condemn Duke and say he didn’t want a vote from him or any other white supremacists, Trump claimed that he didn’t know anything about white supremacists or about Duke himself. David Duke is a former KKK Leader who has built their cult on the stepping and stomping of people of color. Chris Barker, an Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, said he had never seen applications for his chapter grow at the rate they did that summer.






"We will not shut up and dribble"

Cole, Devan. "Lebron James: 'I Am More Than An Athlete'". CNN, 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/02/17/politics/lebron-james-laura-ingraham-kevin-durant/index.html. Accessed 3 Mar 2018.

In a recent UNINTERRUPTED video that features Lebron James of the Cleveland Cavaliers and his fellow basketball star and good friend Kevin Durant of the Golden State Warriors. The podcast's host, Cari Champion, asked the two players how they would describe the current climate for politically-engaged athletes. Last year, James called the President a "bum" on Twitter, said the climate "is hot." During the podcast he goes further and he said Trump is "someone who doesn't understand the people—and really don't give a [expletive] about the people." James comments did not go well with Fox News host Laura Ingraham, who took to her show to tell James that he should "shut up and dribble." Laura went on to say "This is what happens when you attempt to leave high school early to join the NBA," Ingraham said. "It's always unwise to seek political advice from someone who gets paid $100 million a year to bounce a ball." In a statement released later that week, she said there was "no racial intent in my remarks" and dismissed such claims as "an attempt to immunize entertainment and sports elites from scrutiny and criticism." Durant, though, doesn't agree.
In an interview with USA TODAY, he agreed with the declaration that her comments had racial undertones. "To me, it was racist," he said. At an NBA news conference, James reiterated his stance, telling reporters that he and fellow players "will definitely not shut up and dribble." The #wewillnotshutupanddribble has gone on to have over 2000 posts on instagram and involved in over 1000 tweets. Lebron James instagram post about the issue has been repeated across several news sites and accumulated over 40000 interactions.


Is racism on the decline in America?

"Spotlight On Research: Is Racism On The Decline In America?". Association For Psychological Science, 2018, https://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/spotlight-on-research-is-racism-on-the-decline-in-america. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.

Has racism declined as much as surveys indicate? Research psychologists have long studied race relations in America. The thrust of this work largely has been to understand the nature of Whites’ prejudice toward people of color (mainly toward Blacks) and to explore how interracial contact situations can be structured to reduce this prejudice. Over the past three decades, nationwide surveys show significant declines in expressions of prejudice, negative stereotyping, and resistance to equality by Whites. Although, considerable gaps in social, economic, and physical well-being between Blacks and Whites still exist(an example being less than 5 companies in the Fortune 500 have black CEOs), and in some cases are growing. Blacks continue to report greater distrust of our social system and of other people than do Whites. For example, in one nationwide survey, only 16% of Blacks (compared to 44% of Whites) felt that “most people can be trusted.” These data challenge the assumption that race is no longer a critical issue for our society. The fact that negative attitudes may exist and be expressed automatically does not mean that racial bias is inevitable or immutable. However, America seems to think it has disappeared entirely. This point of view is identified as Modern Symbolic Racism. Americans believe racial equality is good, but it should be achieved. Americans still show negative attitudes towards blacks and minorities. Basically, Americans endorse equality of opportunity, but not equality of outcome.


KKK slows down but hate crimes increase

"KKK Chapters Are Dwindling — But Other Hate Groups Are On The Rise". New York Post, 2018, https://nypost.com/2018/02/21/kkk-chapters-are-dwindling-but-other-hate-groups-are-on-the-rise/. Accessed 2 Mar 2018.

The Southern Poverty Law Center said its count of Klan groups fell from 130 in 2016 to 72 last year, despite an increase of activity in the broader white supremacist movement. The Alabama-based law center reported a sharp increase in neo-Nazi groups, from 99 in 2016 to 121 last year. And it counted a total of 954 active “hate groups” in 2017, an increase of 4 percent over the previous year. The Anti-Defamation League said in a report last year that 42 Klan groups were active in 22 states between January 2016 and June 2017. But more than half of them had formed in the previous three years, and their recruiting efforts couldn’t compete with other white supremacist groups, the report said. The law center counted more than 600 groups that “adhere to some form of white supremacist ideology.” It also reported an increase in what it calls “black nationalist hate groups,” from 193 chapters in 2016 to 233 last year.


Harvard’s discrimination against Asian Americans must end

Blum, Edward. "Opinion | Harvard’S Discrimination Against Asian Americans Must End". Washington Post, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/harvards-discrimination-against-asian-americans-must-end/2017/08/08/446ebd6a-7bb1-11e7-a669-b400c5c7e1cc_story.html?utm_term=.d2fc87ddf84f. Accessed 2 Mar 2018.

The Justice Department confirmed that it is examining claims of racial discrimination against Asian Americans in university admissions. There is a chance that this will result in investigations and lawsuits targeting the United States most competitive schools. This is a significant and welcome development. If the Justice Department follows through — as it should — what its lawyers will find at Harvard University and other Ivy League schools is an unfair and unconstitutional process that restricts the number of Asians admitted. That should alarm all Americans. Sadly, Harvard has a long and ugly history of using “holistic” admissions to discriminate against high-achieving minorities. As many historians have detailed, nearly 100 years ago, Harvard’s leadership believed it had too many Jews because almost a quarter of all Harvard freshmen were Jewish. (NEEDS TO BE FINISHED)


Beginning to end Racial profiling

"Beginning To End Racial Profiling: Definitive Solutions To An Elusive Problem". Scholarlycommons.Law.Wlu.Edu, 2011, https://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1329&context=crsj. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.

Many Americans have had interactions with police officers and other law-enforcement agents, and the majority of these police-citizen encounters occur in  traffic stops. Although, traffic stops are necessary not only for enforcing traffic rules and deterring traffic violations, but they are generally beneficial for broader public safety concerns. For many people, traffic stops are simply part of life. For many racial minorities, however, especially African-American and Latino men, even a routine traffic stop takes on an entirely different meaning. There is strong evidence that racial minorities believe law enforcement officers engage in racial profiling. African-Americans have long argued that police officers investigate their behaviour with a higher depth, and many report that they are fearful of arrest even if they have done nothing illegal. The majority of African-Americans believe that racial profiling is wrong, yet is prevalent within their communities. The almost insuperable legal standards and the difficulty in sustaining Equal Protection claims, shows that reliance on judicial remedies is unwise. Alternatively, legislative efforts, may offer a more promising strategy to address racial profiling. For many years, Representative John Conyers and others in Congress have been working to pass federal legislation that would address racial profiling. The End Racial Profiling Act would prohibit and attempt to eliminate racial profiling by federal, state, local, and tribal law-enforcement agencies and would allow the federal government or private plaintiffs to sue for declaratory or injunctive relief. More than half of the nation’s states have enacted legislation either prohibiting racial profiling and/or requiring jurisdictions within the state to collect data on law enforcement stops and searches. Racial profiling is not only common at traffic stops but also at other public places such as airports, malls and even hospitals. These profiling have led to the deaths of many people(children included) who have not once gone against the law but have died because of the colour of their skin or the way they look.


Robots and Racism

C, Bartneck et al. "Robots And Racism". Ir.Canterbury.Ac.Nz, 2013, https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/handle/10092/15024. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.

When we meet people for the first time, often we notice their gender and race most especially. Previous research has shown that people use these social categories even in impression formation about nonhuman entities for example the look and manipulation of a Robot's body, shape, and perception of gender in robots. The question thus arises whether they might also be perceived to have race if presented with cues stereotypic of various racial identities. That is, do people automatically identify robots as being racialized, such that we might say that some robots are “White” while others are “Asian” or “Black”. In particular, an abundance of social psychological research shows that people have implicit racial biases which significantly aspect their behaviour.  Determining whether people perceive robots to have race, and if so, whether the same race-related prejudices extend to robots, is thus an important matter. To investigate these questions, we adapted the shooter bias paradigm a well established method for investigating the automaticity of race-based categorization and of biased behavioral responding. In this paradigm, participants are asked to play the role of a police o cer whose job it is to shoot individuals carrying a gun, while refraining from shooting people carrying harmless objects such as a soda can, wallet, or a cell phone. The task is carried out using image- based stimuli on a computer, with multiple trials depicting the full manipulation of the individuals’ race (Black versus White) crossed with the objects in hand. These trials occur on the screen in rapid succession to mirror the rapid context in which police officers are expected to make decisions. This experiment revealed that participants were quicker to shoot an armed Black agent than an armed White agent, and simultaneously faster to refrain from shooting an unarmed White agent than an unarmed Black agent regardless of whether it was a human or robot. Also the viewing of Robots as a particular colour can also act as a distraction within growing youth which aim to build these objects as to how they see them online or on the television rather than chase their own imagination.


The Shock of Charlottesville: Unmasking Racism in Healthcare

Dossey, Larry. "The Shock Of Charlottesville: Unmasking Racism In Healthcare". Explore Journal.Com, 2018, http://www.explorejournal.com/article/S1550-8307(17)30370-1/pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2018.

Larry Dossey begins this article with a timeline of how several events witnessed have selectively been tied to Racism in Healthcare. As he begins, America is on edge following a violent confrontation in Charlottes- ville, Virginia on 12 August between white supremacists and Nazi supporters on one side and counter-protestors on the other. The importance of Charlottesville goes beyond public statues of Confederate leaders.  Just as many white citizens cannot recognize the presence of racism in the lives of minorities in our country or think white supremacy and neo-Naz- ism are acceptable, many Americans are also blind to how racism has influenced and continues to influence American medical care. This includes many health- care professionals. In some ways these problems have become worse, evidenced by the President's and the Republicans’ war on Planned Parenthood, which provides medical services for millions of minorities and the poor of all races; the refusal of 16 states to expand Medicaid coverage to needy populations, including people of color, condemning thousands to early death; and the recent attempts to strip health insurance from around 24 million Americans—mainly people of color, the poor, the elderly, and the disabled—in order to finance a tax cut for rich Americans and diminish the legacy of President Barack Obama.







Killer Robots and the Morality of Conventional Warfare (Pitch)

By: Pritam Hooda

Source : https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/29/opinion/killer-robots-weapons.html

Autonomous weaponry refers a piece of military technology that, once activated, can engage its targets without any human input. So imagine a turret that works completely independently, or for a more real-life example: the Israeli Army’s Harpy drone, which works independently to find and eliminate targets. This technology has become a subject of a numerous debates because of the ramifications of removing human input, and whether or not it’s ethical to do so.

Numerous founders of robotics and artificial intelligence companies are calling for a United Nations ban on the development of this technology. They make the argument that these will become weapons of mass terror, removing of the human decision-making process and our centralized chains-of-commands, will quicken the pace of combat to an incomprehensible point, and in the “hands of despots dictators, could be disastrous for innocent populations.” Think Genocide and other war crimes.

Michael Robillard, a postdoctoral researcher at Oxford University and a veteran of the Iraq War, says that the debate maybe building on assumptions; focusing on the technology and not on the human responsibility. After all, a human has to design the weapon, and a human has to activate it. Discussing the moral implications of the technology alone does not make sense since “the deep moral issues raised by autonomous weapons are the very same ones raised by conventional warfare.

It is difficult to say whether or not Robillard is right, however, at this point, there is no denying that the technology will be influential. It already is the case of the IAI Harpy, having already been utilized by the militaries of countries like China, India, and Israel. And completion will lead to more development in the field. The way I see it, the question is two parted – one, should the technology be banned on moral grounds; and second, if autonomous weapons are just another tool in conventional warfare, then what does that say about the morality of conventional warfare.

Racism and Its Pervasion in All Aspects of Our World

Lopez, German. “Study: Anti-Black Hiring Discrimination Is as Prevalent Today as It Was in 1989.” Vox, Vox, 18 Sept. 2017, www.vox.com/identities/2017/9/18/16307782/study-racism-jobs.

German Lopez’s piece discusses the prevalence of discrimination against blacks when it pertains to jobs and hiring, and how the circumstances as it pertains to this are just as bad in today’s world as it was in 1989. A study done by Northwestern University concluded that “white applicants receive 36% more callbacks than equally qualified African Americans” while “[w]hite applicants receive on average 24% more callbacks than Latinos.” The studies look at discrimination during the point of hire, and the results show that these rates have barely changed since 1989, indicative of the racial wealth gap present in America.

This article is another statistical piece of evidence in support of the racism entrenched in all aspects in American society. Minority groups not only have to worry about being verbally and physically discriminate against daily, but it has leaked over into the professional spectrum where they are put at an extreme disadvantage in even finding jobs, let alone promotions or well-paying and job security due to racism and its overwhelming presence.


Dauvergne, Mia, et al. “Hate Crime In Canada.” Hate Crime in Canada, Stats Canada, 17 Nov. 2008, www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/85f0033m/85f0033m2008017-eng.htm.

This article by Mia Dauvergne, Katie Scrim and Shannon Brennan from the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics & Statistics Canada denotes many statistics on the percentages of hate crimes occurring in Canada. The stats highlight many troubling things about Canadian culture, like how youth aged 12-17 were more likely than older age groups to be accused of hate crimes, and how the majority of hate crimes individuals suffered from were committed by strangers, around 77%.

These statistics should put to rest the idea that Canada is a country free of racism. The reality of the situation is that while we may be better off and more educated on the subject as a whole as opposed to America, there are still those in Canada who do not understand or choose not to understand racism and its effects. This ties into my concept of how racism breeds itself, and that its pervasiveness is prominent in all society.

Why we need resources for mental health.

Abdelmahmoud, Elamin. “I Sure As Hell Wouldn’t Want To Be A Student Now: An Open Letter To Margaret Wente.”Chatelaine, 2017. http://www.chatelaine.com/opinion/campus-mental-health/. February 10, 2018.


This article written by Elamin Abdelmahmoud comes from the perspective of a university instructor responding to Wente’s opinion.  She emphasizes that the students actually have much resiliency and that universities aren’t doing enough fo those struggling.  Abdelmahmoud also says “I sure as hell wouldn’t want to be a student now.”  She says this as she brings up the point that university students these days have an extremely competitive job market to look forward to when the graduate, and that contributes very much to their stress.  This is significant particularly about this point as it offers another perspective as to why university students are struggling.  It is especially helpful that I get a perspective from a university instructor who is dealing with these students and they can give their own personal accounts of the situation.



Findlay, Leanne. “Depression and suicidal ideation among Canadians aged 15-24.” Statistics Canada. 2017. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2017001/article/14697-eng.htm. February 10, 2018


This article gives statistics on the mental health of youth in Canada.  It states that youth aged 15-24 had the poorest mental health of all age groups.  The article also states that school is a major source of stress for students.  Having this information in my podcast will help give some context on the subject.  It emphasizes that youth in Canada are indeed struggling and that there needs to be action to take place to make improvements for the youth.  Even though Wente would argue otherwise this information is important to have because it enforces the perspective that Wente’s argument might not be correct.

Episode Pitch Re-Upload Abby and Maja

In October of 2017, The Toronto Star ran an article by Grand Chief Serge Simon called “First Nations Confident Courts Will Stop Kinder Morgan Pipeline.” The article features Grand Chief Simon voicing his oddly uncommon opinion that even though Prime Minister Justin Trudeau himself has given the controversial pipeline expansion the federal nod of approval, it will never break ground. I read this article and was immediately drawn in, potentially biased as I may be as an identifying Aboriginal person and an informed BC resident, the optimism and tone of the article struck a chord in me. It made me question: can we, the people, oppose the word of the government? Do we need to?

The pipeline concerns all Canadians. The Kinder Morgan expansion would mean significant deforestation and the possibility of an oil spill in the Pacific Ocean, which would be nothing short of an environmental catastrophe that would affect not only the wildlife and ecosystem, but the Canadians that inhabit the land.

The Kinder Morgan pipeline remains a looming symbol of Canada’s presence in the oil industry and how it affects our environment, our precious “home and native land.” But should the health of the economy trump that of the environment? , should the environment hold more importance than the economy? Or is there a solution where both can coexist effectively?  

This topic is also one that specifically concerns the First Nations people of our country, and the question of how and why they hold so much power over the land that is no longer theirs. Grand Chief Simon outlines that the First Nations people hold more power than you would initially think. The obligations the government holds to its First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people are significant, and arguably rightly so. The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes in our Constitution that the rights to many traditional Aboriginal territories were never ceded through treaties, including much of the land this pipeline is meant to be built on. So really, the word of the Aboriginal people isn’t just of figurative importance, but literal as well.

Pipelines in Canada remain under much debate. While BC’s provincial NDP government remains incredibly opposed to the pipeline expansion, just over the Rockies, Alberta’s own NDP government supports it strongly. For Alberta’s economy and job market, the benefits of expanding the Canadian oil industry are huge. The pipeline expansion would be a boost of the current decline of Alberta’s oil market, and would create reliable jobs for thousands of Albertans currently suffering a high unemployment rate.

In this episode, we will be exploring the economic benefits of the Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion, going into depth on the environmental impacts, and question of why the First Nations people in particular have so much to say and do with it all.

We are committed in this episode to finding how this pipeline affects Canadians specifically, what is at stake, and the power we hold as people to oppose the government “representing us.”

I’m Maja Nordine, and I’m Abby Howland, and this is Power to the People.