A lot of money, just not enough for women - (working title)

The problem with Privilege and Fighting for Equal Pay

Schlossberg, M., Colon, A., Wang, E., Stone, C., Minton, M., Eidell, L. and Arneson, K. “The Problem With Privilege and Fighting for Equal Pay.” Glamour, Jan. 2018, https://www.glamour.com/story/the-problem-with-privilege-and-fighting-for-equal-pay

This article from, Glamour states that although the conversation about equal pay is becoming a hot topic now especially with the #metoo movement being at the forefront of the news and social media, individuals should not fail to notice that these celebrities speaking up is a privilege that the average working women does not always have. Celebrities have a huge influence on shaping our society especially when it comes down to the issues that women are routinely facing. However, the topic of money isn't something that women are conditioned to speak about, reasons varying from company policies to gender stereotypes because they live in the fear of its consequences. In the midst of all this Hollywood news, individuals must remember that Hollywood is just a small portion of a large problem.

The War on Women's Pay

Pesta, A. “The War on Women’s Pay: Rep. Jackie Speier Marks ‘Equal Pay Day’ With a Call to Arms.” The Daily Beast, April. 2012, https://www.thedailybeast.com/the-war-on-womens-pay-rep-jackie-speier-marks-equal-pay-day-with-a-call-to-arms

Abigail Pesta interviews Jessica Speier who specializes in investing human rights issues across the globe. She claims that priorities of right-winged Republicans today are very clear; to assault women rights and the value of women.  Women are currently earning 77% of men’s pay according to the American Association of University Women this number has gone up from 59% in 1970. The improvements being made for women’s pay is going at a very slow pace. At this rate, it would take up to 50 years for women to make equally as much as their male coworkers. April 17th has been set as equal payday because from January to April 17 is exactly how long women have to work each year to earn what a man makes in a year.

How Men & Women See the Workplace Differently

Waller, N. "How Men and Women See the Workplace Differently."WSJ. Sept, 2016, http://graphics.wsj.com/how-men-and-women-see-the-workplace-differently/

This article in the wall street Journal does a great job at explaining the modern workforce for men and women today. Despite the fact that both genders may be attending the same business meetings, striving for the same promotions and walking down the same hallways there is still a drastic difference in the type of experiences at work both genders are having. Women feel as though they are invisible at work  and know that there less opportunities for promotions for them as opposed to men. It is statistically proven that most powerful positions in the workplace are still significantly dominated by males. Despite these differences in both genders, they do share common grounds with one thing; 45% of them believe that their workplace is not doing what is necessary to achieve gender parity. 

Gender Inequality and Women in the Workplace

Harvard Summer School. " Gender Inequality and Women in the Workplace. " Harvard Summer School. https://www.summer.harvard.edu/inside-summer/gender-inequality-women-workplace

This article discusses how women seem to have caught up with men in terms of education in the US and a number of other countries across the globe however they are still ending up with a lot of caregiving responsibilities. In countries like Japan where there is a huge cultural emphasis on motherhood as well as corporate culture many women are choosing not to have kids because doing both seems near impossible. It is not just countries like Japan where the fertility rate is decreasing its even places like the US and Europe. Public policy is crucially important for gender equality in the workplace and at home.

Why we have too few woman leaders - Sheryl Sandberg

Sandberg, S. "Why we have too few women leaders." Ted.com. https://www.ted.com/talks/sheryl_sandberg_why_we_have_too_few_women_leaders

Sheryl Sandberg explains in her Ted Talk that there are three main reasons as to why we have don’t have enough leaders that are women in the workforce. Across the world in every type of  industry, the number of women leaders compared to men are extremely low and they are not changing for the better.  Sheryl claims that there are three things that individuals can do to help women become leaders in the workforce. The first is for women to  “sit at the table”;  studies have shown that women lack a sense of confidence in their abilities, they always justify the reason for their success while men embrace it.  Women find it difficult to negotiate their salaries as opposed to men. They must find it in themselves to strive for what they want by not sitting at the side tables during meetings.  The 2nd  thing women must do is “make your partner a real partner”. Over the past several years there has been more progress done in the workforce than in the household. Making household work more equal between a women and her partner gives her more room to further her career while still being a mother. The third is “ don't leave before your leaving” , this means that women shouldn't  start to make decisions based on being a mother before they even get married or are pregnant. Doing this stops women from advancing in their fields which makes it less convincing for them to not go back when the maternity leave is over. Her conclusion is that women must be more empowered at work and men should be more empowered at home.

Are Successful Women Really Less Likable Than Successful Men?

Barkhorn, E. "Are Successful Women Really Less Likable Than Successful Men?." The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2013/03/are-successful-women-really-less-likable-than-successful-men/273926/

Studies show that a successful man is more well liked than a successful women. This was originally concluded from a 2003 social experiment done with Harvard business students, two groups of students were given the same paper except one group was told it was written by Heidi and the other Howard. Both groups were asked if they would like to work for/along side the writer. Students claimed that Howard was very  appealing and insightful and the students that got Hedi said that she came off as selfish and not someone you would like to hire. Another study was done with 60,000 full time workers on their attitudes towards male and female managers. 72% of them said they would rather a male manager over a female. We are conditioned to think that men are more calm, stable and competent while women are more mean, emotional and shrill.   

Pitch - Audio file & Transcript

Making sacrifices is embedded in our DNA. It comes as a natural instinct and it is expected of us in order to achieve our goals. How many of you wouldn't think twice about making a sacrifice when it came to your career, your family and your loved ones?  Now how many times did your gender influence your decision to make a sacrifice? 

Across the world women on average are getting paid 23 cents less than men on the dollar. This is not some breakthrough or long kept secret, in fact it has been the stable reality for a long time. 23 cents is an improvement from the rates we had 16 years ago, and this number can vary based on skin colour,religion ethnicity and other uncontrollable factors. 

You might assume that this is not affecting the pay check of the well established actress and 4 time Oscar nominee and golden globe winner like Michelle Williams. I thought that it would be easy for her to find a role as a women in the acting industry today, where she is not just someones “mother” or “wife” but plays a strong female lead role. Unfortunately this is not the case, so when Williams got the part of Gail Harris in “All the money in the world” she was ready to do just about anything to get this film to play in theatres. This meant that she felt the need to offer up her pay, so they could re-film the movie without alleged sexual abuser  Kevin Spacey while maintaining the budget. She was paid 1/10th of 1% of her co-star Mark Wahlberg. This is a sacrifice no other man on set felt like he needed to make.  So the problem roots here…..if there were more opportunities for working women, it is highly likely that Williams wouldn’t feel the need to sacrifice and gift away her pay for a shot at success. 

I’ve been working at my job for 3 years now and my coworkers are my good friends. One day one of them was driving me home, this man is is pretty supportive of me and always  seems to have my best interest at heart. I told him how I’m thinking of finally asking our boss for a promotion, expecting for his usual encouraging response. Instead he went on to say something very defensively that caught me off guard “You’ll get your promotion after I get mine”.  Unwarrantedly assuring me that his competences were far greater than mine and setting his dominance. Now there’s actually a lot of men who want the same position that I’m striving for and my work environment has completely shifted ever since I told them that I too wanted the job. It’s not just how much we are being paid compared to a man it’s also how we are being seen and treated. This left me begging the question that although we may be working at the same place and presented with the same opportunities to strive for the same promotions, how different is my work experience from a male and how common is my experience among women?

This episode is made to open the eyes of observes, to reach out to those that are being directly affected by this topic and to help inform everyone to take a deeper look on how to help men and women seek justice across all industries.

The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face

Burstzyn, L. Fujiwara, T. Pallais, A. "The Ambition-Marriage Trade-Off Too Many Single Women Face." Harvard buisness review. https://hbr.org/2017/05/the-ambition-marriage-trade-off-too-many-single-women-face

This article discusses how studies have shown that men prefer female partners who are less professionally ambitious than they are. Due to this many single women often contemplate having either professional success or be less favourable in the heterosexual marriage market. It is statistically proven that men more often than not don't find a women who speaks up in meetings, takes charge of projects and works late as appealing than a women who doesn’t do this. Women are aware of this and often lower their ambitions in order to seem more appealing to a man. They ask for less money, less travel time for work and less hours per week. This is effecting the work environment in many industries and it is helpful to my research because if women are less ambitious they will be less inclined to fight for their equal pay rights.  

Understanding the "Family Gap" in Pay for Women with Children

Waldfogel, J. "Understanding the 'Family Gap' in Pay for Women with children." Journal of Economic Perspectives. https://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.12.1.137

The article discusses the gender gap in pay between women and men and how it  has narrowed over the course of the last several years. Waldfogel goes on to explain that despite this being true the  “family gap” between mothers and non-mothers has continued to grow. One reason for this could be the policies that are being reinforced in countries such as the United states, which continue to emphasize equal pay and opportunities but fail to make family policies a priority. The industrialized countries that make gender policies and families policies an equal priority are the ones that are succeeding the most at narrowing the gender gap and family gap. This is important to my research because it furthers understanding in what policies are effecting women’s pay.

Getting to gender equality starts with realizing how far we have to go

Women in the Workplace Study. (2018). "Getting to gender equality starts with realizing how far we have to go. " https://womenintheworkplace.com/ [Accessed 26 Feb. 2018].

This article discusses how women are still being underrepresented at every level in corporate America despite the fact that there are more of them have been earning college degrees as opposed to men for the last 30 years and counting. To this day women are being hired and promoted at lower rates than men are. Unfortunately many people are very comfortable with the status quo, individuals believe that women are being well represented when they only see a few working women. Some individuals believe that gender diversity will put them at a disadvantage. Many men are less committed to this issue than women are and individuals are in need of both genders to bring equality in the workforce. This is important to my research because it provides an understanding as to what are the obstacles that we must face when fighting for equal pay rights. 

Success VS Likability

Andrews, K. "Success vs Likability" Women's Initiative Team.  https://www.andrewskurth.com/media/straightline/1657_AKStraightline_18_Nov2013.pdf

In the article "Success vs Likability" Andrew explains how  success for a man is perceived as a likeable character, where as being successful for a women is seen as a less likeable characteristic to behold. Women are expected to be sensitive, caring and supportive beings and if a women doesn’t embody these characteristics they are perceived as being “selfish” and not the type of person you would want to hire. Men on the other hand are expected to be in charge, ambitious and competitive. A women that does not pursue a career that is not in the norm for her gender is automatically criticized more harshly. This is important to my research because it explains how success and likability are perceived differently for men and women and how it influences their careers.

Women and Paid Work

Moyser, M. "Women and Paid Work". Statistics Canada.http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-503-x/2015001/article/14694-eng.htm

Statistics Canada looks at the Canadian data of women and paid work over the last several years. They have determined that 82% of Canadian women between the ages of 25-54 are working  compared to 65.2% in 1983 and 21.6% in 1950. Although women are still less likely to work as opposed to men, gender disparity has shown improvement over the past several years. Stats Canada looks at the statistics of married women, women with high school diplomas and university degrees and they then compare this data to men. This resource is important to my research as it offers a statistical understanding as to where there is still room for improvement and what is encouraging the progress that we have made so far. 

Gender Stereotypes Influence How People Explain Gender Disparities in the Workplace

Cundiff, J. and Vescio, T. (2016). "Gender Stereotypes Influence How People Explain Gender Disparities in the Workplace." Sex Roles, 75(3-4), pp.126-138.

This article takes a look at how gender stereotypes provide an explanation as to why women are underrepresented and men are overrepresented in the workforce. Gender differences are innate and can be explained through biology which influences individuals to believe that it is the cause for gender stereotypes as oppose to socially influenced situations. Men are shown favouritism in the workplace and are given more opportunities for leadership as oppose to women.  Individuals provide viable explanations to these types of gender disparities by using  biological explanations and minimize the perceptions of social injustice which makes the system seem as though it is just. 

Public policy and equal pay : a comparative study of equal pay laws in Canada, U.S.A. and U.K. / by P. Andiappan ... (et al.). —

Andiappan, P. (1985). Public Policy and Equal Pay: A Comparative Study of Equal Pay Laws in Canada, U.S.A. and U.K. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 51(1), pp.24-32.

The journal of International Review of Administrative Sciences, recognized the concept of equal pay across the United States, Canada and Great Britain. Canada applies the broadest equal pay definition written in 1978  in the Human Rights Act which is that there must be “equal pay for work of equal value” ; despite this each of its provinces besides Quebec has stricter policies which entail “equal pay for equal work or substantially the same work”. Very few cases get reported to the Canadian Human Rights Act today. In the U.S. due to the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that deals with sex discrimination in pay involves the policy of equal pay for  “the same or substantially the same work”. Since 1963, there has been thousands of complaints alleging the violation of the Equal Pay Act. Great Britain established an equal pay act in 1970 and a sex discrimination act in 1975 which prohibits treating people of one sex less favourably than another sex when employed in the same or similar work. These laws are written in almost all employment contracts for men and women. There are very few cases reported in Great Britain.

Women Can't Wait Until 2059 For Equal Pay

Time. (2018). Women Can't Wait Until 2059 For Equal Pay. [online] Available at: http://time.com/4286884/women-cant-wait-for-equal-pay/ [Accessed 6 Mar. 2018].

Times magazine realized an article on behalf of April 12th which marks Equal Pay Day. This date can vary depending on the country however it has the same meaning; it represents how far into the year women have to work in order to have made what a man has made who holds the same job in the previous year. This date can vary based on religion and race. White women are earning 78% of what men are earning, African American women are earning 63%, Hispanic and Latina 54%, American Indian and Alaska Native 59%. After 4 years of graduating from a college/university degree a white female student working full time on average would have paid off 33% of their debt and men have paid off 44%. African American and Hispanic Women working full- time have paid less than 10% of their debt. Taking into account working parents, a mother would have to work 6 extra months to make how much a father has made in a year. Working mothers are earning less than childless mothers on average. In fact, men that have become fathers are more likely to be hired than childless men. Female dominated fields are traditionally worse paid and respected then fields of work that are dominated by men. The gender pay gap has barely changed for over a decade. At this rate it will take another 43 years for women to fully catch up to men.