Millennial Memes: All Annotated Bibliographies (Khadija Warsame)

Annotated Bib #1

Gullifor, Daniel P., Lori L. Tribble, and Claudia C. Cogliser. "SOME OF MY BEST FRIENDS AT WORK ARE MILLENNIALS." Leading Diversity in the 21st Century (2017): 221.

The paper is excerpted from a book titled Leading Diversity in the 21st century.This study focuses on the leader-member exchange between generation when new generation move into the workforce. The study outlines the assumptions of older generations towards new ones. It showcases the transition the older generation faces in becoming a member from being a follower as the younger generation, in this case millennials, gain momentum and establishes their place in the workforce. The book was published in 2017, making it extremely recent and the results very up-to-date. The book was published by the Library of Congress and Age Publishing, both reputable establishments. This is useful source as it will provide me with relevant and reliable information from a properly conducted study that directly relates to my topic.

Annotated Bib #2

Mannheim, Karl. "The problem of generations." Psychoanalytic review 57.3 (1970): 378.

This paper is written by Karl Mannheim, an acclaimed sociologist. The paper breaks down the idea of generations and their history throughout eras in time. Mannheim goes over the way generation are introduced and transcend in and through society and time. Mannheim declares that new generations thrive off of aspects of the previous generation. They build off of previous qualities and with enact change in society. Socio-historical events group social groups together, by age with commonalities. The source is credible. Mannheim's work, The Problem of Generations, has allowed him to be viewed as the founder sociology of knowledge by academic institutions internationally. Though the paper was published over thirty years ago, it does not affect its credibility because it's topic is relevant today and it provides foundational knowledge regarding the subject. This source will be useful to my research as it provides me with the basis information for me and my listeners to clearly understand the idea of generations.

Annotated Bib #3

Hemmadi, Murad. “Millennials Are Begrudgingly Making Way for Generation Z.”, 1 Dec. 2017,

This article was written in the highly acclaimed Canadian publication, Macleans. The article was written by senior editor Murad Hemmadi in late 2017. The article will provide sufficient information that will add to my podcast as it covers one side of my argument. Generation Z versus Millennials. The article describes the attributes members of Generation Z posses in comparison to millennials. In addition the article provides accurate statistics that compare education, and success prospects of millennials and generation z. The article does a fine job at outlining the fears of millennial in the overwhelming climate of Generation z as well as clearly differentiates between the two generations. This source will prove to be useful in my research.

Annotated Bib #4

Bergman, Shawn M., et al. "Millennials, narcissism, and social networking: What narcissists do on social networking sites and why." Personality and Individual Differences 50.5 (2011): 706-711.

This article is written by Shawn M. Bergman, a doctor of psychology at Appalachian State University. in the work, he draws the connection between narcissism, social media and millennials. He finds that the millennial generation is narcissistic because of their dependence and engagement with social media. He also outlines that there a narcissists and non-narcissist in the millennial generation though the latter are fewer. He says that though both sides do engage with social media, they both have different reasons for doing so . The self-indulgence craving is what forces narcissistic millennial to engage with social media. This source will b useful in discussion the relationship generations have with social media and what that means about their general personalities and their reactions to others. This source will prove to be useful in my research.

Annotated Bib #5

Bruenig, Elizabeth. “Perspective | Why Is Millennial Humor so Weird?” The Washington Post, WP Company, 11 Aug. 2017,

This article is written by staff writer Elizabeth Bruenig. In the article, she analyzes millennials and their use of memes. She says that millennials are simply uninterested, bored, lost, morbid and are and consequently hopeless about the future, past and present. This is reflected in their sense of humour. Millennial meme culture is based on absurdity, self-deprecation and a unified universality within the demographic. The source is credible as it comes from a reputable publication and from a staff writer that has written a sufficient number of articles. The article is editorial so it shall be uses as my opinion piece.

Annotated Bib #6

Routledge, Clay. “Why Are Millennials Wary of Freedom?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Oct. 2017,

This article is written by Clay Routledge, a columnist at the New York Times. The article delves into the reasons why the millennial generations seems to be hopeless about their future and unhappy with their present.  This source will be helpful in providing information for the opposing side of my argument. This will help me clarify the reasoning behind the comedic aspects of memes that depicts the darkness implied. Clay Routledge is leading expert in the psychology of nostalgia and experimental existential psychology. He has published over 75 scientific papers. Dr. Routledge s work is regularly featured in the media and he writes the popular blog More Than Mortal for Psychology Today.

Annotated Bib #7

Shifman, Limor. Memes in digital culture. Mit Press, 2014.

The book is written by Limor Shifman and delves into the concept of, “what is a meme?” Shifman looks at how memes changed from being a term for the academics to that of public use and disclosure the ventures through memes of the past decade and looks at the rise of internet memes; production, content and sharing. Limor is an acclaimed author published in the MIT Press. He is a professor at the Department of Communication and Journalism, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, and and the Vice Dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences. This source is credible and scholarly.

Annotated Bib #8

Knobel, Michelle, and Colin Lankshear. "Online memes, affinities, and cultural production." A new literacies sampler 29 (2007): 199-227.

This paper surrounds the social practices that allow memes to be propagated. It proposes that cultural information is contagious, especially with the millennial generation. They write that the audience for theses memes are also not interested in divulging  into the implicit social meaning behind the memes but are satisfied with the comedic reactions they conjure. Knobel is a professor at Montclair State University. She has various publications and acclaimed journals and has devoted her life to studying youth literacy practices, and the study of the relationship between new literacies and digital technologies. This source is both scholarly and credible.

Annotated Bib #9

Davison, Patrick. "The language of internet memes." The social media reader (2012): 120-134.

Davinson focuses on the “audience” of these memes, the younger generation. He analyses their perception of the memes and the culturally relevant knowledge that come with them. He talks about the “platform shift”, the means in which information is shared in this age. Davidson is a professor at the University of Ottawa. He has been an avid contributor to the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. This source will be really helpful in looking at the psychological responses the “audience”, the millennial generation, has the these widespread memes. This source is both scholarly and credible.

Annotated Bib #10

“Generations in Canada.” Census Program, 21 Dec. 2015,

This is the latest census take, in 2011, that outlines the generation in Canada. In the census, I can see that the millenial and generation z generation make the majority of the population. As they are both generations commonly linked to memes and the internet, I lumped them together. Their cumulative percentage of the population is 49% (2011) and with the expectation of an exponential growth in the paper, that number has surely increased. This is a credible government source.

Annotated Bib #11

Ballantyne, Hannah. “How Meme Culture Is Getting Teens into Marxism.” Broadly, 27 Apr. 2017,

The article was published in the online newspaper Broadly. By Hannah Ballantyne, a contributor to the website. This would make the source popular. The article surrounds the affiliation between  meme culture and marxisms. She reflects that the younger generation turns to memes to voice their take on public issues. She gives example and analyzes satirical memes with themes of capitalism, marxism, exploitation and corruption. This piece will be very helpful in finding the different narrative of the memes and how it contributes to the humorous effect. This is a popular source.

Annotated Bib #12

Blackmore, Susan. “The Power of Memes.” Blackmore, Scientific American, Vol 283 No 4, October 2000, p 52-6130 May 2017,

In the paper, Dr. Blackmore focuses on the imitation aspect of emmes. She specifying that memes are altered, shared, altered, shared, ets. She explains that this how memes become an inside joke with various communities on the internet. She adds that memes can be traced back to an originating idea. Blackmore published her paper within the Scientific American Journal. She is an acclaimed professor, researcher, psychologist and revisiting TED talker. She has a plethora of publications. This source is both credible and scholarly.


Annotated Bib #13

Eadicicco, Lisa. “How the Internet Is Getting a Little Nicer, One Meme at a Time.” Time, Time, 8 June 2017,

This article talks about an event that happened earlier last year, in April 2017, on Twitter. The Fetal Depressed Kermit was beginning its circulation on the internet when Jonathan Sun, a doctoral student at MIT, encouraged to change the image to one of tears of joy rather than tears for depression. Eadicicco uses the example to base her article which studies the narrative that accompanies most millennial memes that circulate the internet. She talks about how most are pessimist, statical, self-aware and depressing. This will help when I look at my opinion piece as the author talks about various qualities that memes have. However, this article will also help me form a rebuttal as it also looks at the benefits of self-aware meme and how it gives millennials a platform to voice their feeling as well as space to feel validated. This source is popular.

Annotated Bib #14

Langlois, Marion Provencher. “Making Sense of Memes: Where They Came From and Why We Keep Clicking Them.” Communication in Poultry Grower Relations, 2014, pp. 9–16., doi:10.1002/9780470376942.c1.

Langlois recoins “meme” as the internet’s language. She looks at the origins of memes, Dawkins’ coining of the original term “memetics”, and the question, “Who creates meme?” Langlois also tries to simplify why memes are created. She says that memes try to reflect a self-aware society and make light of other wise despairing situations. This article will help in finding the foundations of memes and the internet culture that comes along with them. This article will help my analyses of millennial meme humor as it focuses on some of the main question posed in my opinion piece. Langlois is a doctor of Anthropology with multiple publications. This is a credible and scholarly source.

Annotated Bib #15

Gleick, James. “What Defines a Meme?”, Smithsonian Institution, 1 May 2011,

This article looks at the different definitions that can be associated with the word, "meme". This article explores the origins of the word meme which lay with Richard Dawkins, an acclaimed ethologist, and what are considered to the be first memes and later delves into the evolution of memes into what they have become in the present age. James Gleick is an American author and historian of science whose work has chronicled the cultural impact of modern technology. Recognized for his writing about complex subjects through the techniques of narrative nonfiction, he has been called "one of the great science writers of all time". This source is popular but the author is academically credible.  The piece will definitely help in my research as it helps me form my own definition of what a “meme” is.

Annotated Bib #16

Dewey, Caitlin. “The hidden biases of Internet memes.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 6 Apr. 2015,

This article looks at the implicit meaning found in most memes spread by millennial on the internet. In a new study published in the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, a team of Israeli researchers have conducted a census of Internet memes. They analyzed what they call the 50 most popular English-language meme “families,” which include the original “Are you serious?” meme and its most widely circulated derivatives "Seriously Guys” meme. This research exposes popular opinion as the Internet replicates biases and social structures that exist offline. Caitlin Dewey is a reporter on digital culture and technology for The Washington Post. She is the founder for the Intersect, a popular blog for the Post. This source is popular and will help in defining the gravity of memes with the millennial generation.

Annotated Bib #17

Gil, Paul. “Examples of Memes and How to Use Them.” Lifewire, 2 Feb. 2018,

This article uncovers the importances of memes as a cultural symbol. Paul calls a 'meme' a virally-transmitted cultural symbol or social idea. It talks about how memes are a major influence of popular social ideas and expression and are therefore carried into offline life. Internet memes will continue to be humour and shock-value curiosities because of their attention-grabbing qualities. Paul Gil is a professional project manager and a certified computer instructor renowned for his dynamic internet, project management, and database courses. As a longtime veteran of the Internet, having been online since before the World Wide Web was launched in 1989, Gil has seen first-hand the development and evolution of the Web and has witnessed many of its phenomenons in depth, therefore making him a qualified meme discourse. This meme is popular and will assist in my research of memes as a cultural symbol for millennial, on and offline.  

Annotated Bib #18

Bromwich, Jonah Engel. “Life on the Meme Council: Meet the Internet's Gatekeepers.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 15 Dec. 2017,

KnowYourMeme is to memes what Wikipedia is to information. It is a highly reliable site detailing the origins and common usages of nearly any Internet meme in existence. This article provides brief profiles of the main contributors to the site:  a group of extremely influential people who helped shape meme culture over the past several years. Jonah Engel Bromwich, the author of the article, is a general assignment reporter with The New York Times's breaking news team. This article is popular and will be a great addition to my research. KnowYourMeme will be referenced multiple times in my podacst.

Annotated Bib #19

Weng, L., et al. “Competition among memes in a world with limited attention.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 29 Mar. 2012,

In this article, it is stated that the wide adoption of social media has increased the competition among ideas for our finite attention. Factors in meme consumption may include meme competition, the diversity of information we are exposed to, and the fading of our collective interests for specific topics. In the emerging dynamics of information, a few memes go viral while most do not. Data taken from Twitter and other social networking sites are used to explain that a combination of the competition for our limited attention and the structure of the social network is the reason for the phenomenon. L. Weng is an experienced researcher at Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University, Bloomington, USA. She is a Google scholar as well as a nature research journalist. This source is popular and will help in finding the reasons for the mass production and consumption of memes by millennials. 

Annotated Bib #20

Erhan Aslan Lecturer of TESOL and Applied Linguistics, University of Reading. “The surprising academic origins of memes.” The Conversation, 27 Feb. 2018,

This article is vital to my research. It uncovers the origins of memes. Richard Dawkins coins the term “meme” in his famous 1976 book, “The Selfish Gene”. According to Dawkins, a meme is “a unit of cultural transmission or imitation”: his examples include the concept of God, nursery rhymes and jokes, catchphrases and fashion trends. The word “meme”comes from the Greek “mimema”, meaning imitated, which Dawkins supposedly shortened to rhyme with gene. This is a reference to the similarities between the survival of certain memes through the evolution of culture, and the survival of certain genes through the process of natural selection. A few generations of memes are briefly outlined throughout the article. Author Erhan Aslar is a lecturer of TESOL and Applied Linguistics, University of Reading and received a doctorate from the University of South Florida in Second Language Acquisition. This source is scholarly and provides information on the principles of memetics.

Annotated Bib #21

Soto, Kenny. “The Importance of Memes & Meme Culture In Millennial Marketing.” Medium, Medium, 27 Jan. 2017,

This article is written by Kenny Soto on the platform Medium. In the article, he states that currently, millennials are the biggest consumer gap in the market. They are poised to reshape the entire economy. Marketers have to make a conscious effort today to understand how to properly grab their attention and understand their buying and spending habits. Some of the most successful marketing campaigns in recent years have arisen from the meme culture; understand millennial humour and Internet slang has proven to be an extremely effective tool in shifting their spending interests towards those who wield it properly. Kenny Soto is an expert in Marketing and has worked with universities and companies to rebrand their images. This source is popular and will show how the older generation is taking hold of millennial humor and understanding it. 

Annotated Bib #22

Roose, Kevin. “How a CNN Investigation Set Off an Internet Meme War.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 July 2017,

The article discloses an event that took place on July 4th Donald Trump tweeted a meme video of himself in a wrestling ring taking down another man with the CNN logo superimposed on the second man’s face. This meme had been made by an unnamed Reddit user, who was later threatened by the CNN news network himself and sparked a national online controversy. To understand how such a seemingly-insignificant video could contribute to such a grand scandal, this article analyses the prolific right-wing internet presence and their influence on the nation’s minds. Kevin Roose is an American news director, producer, and author. He is well known for writing about Liberty University, a university historically known for very strict rules imposed on students. Roose worked as news director at Fusion. This source is popular and gives an example of how much of an impact memes make.

Annotated Bib #23

Haddow, Douglas. “Meme warfare: how the power of mass replication has poisoned the US election.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 4 Nov. 2016,

The article talks about the idea of using memes for political ends used to be a mainly left-wing tool. At their most basic, meme warfare presented an opportunity for individuals to seize control of the means of media production from corporate interests. The article talks about, meme appropriation or "meme magic". This is when a person of one political affiliation memes satirically memes  about their own policies. Because this is usually done my members of the opposing stance, it is considered "appropriation".  Douglas Haddow is a freelance journalist based in Vancouver, Canada. He specializes in articles about popular culture on the Internet. He has been the author of many in-depth analyses about meme culture and its effects on the general population offline. This source will help delve deeper into the purpose of memes and how they are used beyond entertainment. It will add stamina to my own argument and rebuttal my opinion piece. The source is popular.