Annotated: Solitary Confinement by Duprih and Jennifer


By Duprih R

Bureau of Justice Statistics- Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S Prisons And Jails , 2011-2012

: This site presents statistical data on the percentage of inmates who encounter restrictive housing and the demographics ( gay, black, white, disabled etc.) associated with those who spend time within this aspect of the prison facility. In analyzing the characteristics associated with these inmates people are able to see the connection between the facility and those who are placed within it. Such as; inmates who suffer from mental health, different types of sexuality, how old the inmate is etc. Another important aspect of this article is the length of time that an inmate might spend in restrictive housing and why they are there. Within the prison system certain actions equate to time spent within solitary confinement such as fights ( assaulting another inmate or staff) or rules broken within the facility, on the contrary, some inmates will be in solitary confinement for protection purposes as well, which is something that many prisons offer. 


By Jennifer Anyijiofor

Solitary Watch - Solitary Confinement and the Law, 2011.

This article introduces the legal conditions in which the practice of solitary confinement has been executed in U.S prisons and jails. it talks about how the constitution has limited and allowed solitary confinement, and it also includes a part on international law on solitary confinement. it also describes the tools used to challenge solitary confinement which are the Eight and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. The article also investigates the opinions of the Supreme Court and how it's been interpreted. It gives an insight on the opinions and recommendation of the European Committee against torture.

WEEK 03 - by Duprih R

Gallagher, S. (2014). The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 8. Retrieved from 

Summary: In the battle between the courts and legal system defining what is cruel and the rights each individual is granted is a lengthy conversation. Furthermore, digging into the rights granted to prisoners and those who are incarcerated for lengthy sentences are often faced with the battle of solitary confinement and its obstacles. In connection to what is cruel and what defines rightful treatment, what must be decided is whether or not the different limitations of solitary confinement fit within the guidelines of humane treatment. This is relevant to our research because this begins to answer our question of whether or not solitary confinement is humane treatment.  

 Smith, P. S. (2006). The effects of solitary confinement on prison inmates: A brief history and review of the literature. Crime and Justice, 34, 441-528. Retrieved from 

Summary: The debate of solitary confinement used with convicted offenders has been up for debate for a long time and this article discusses the after effects of this type of punishment. Previous data collected of research on solitary confinement shows that many prisoners had no or little after effects, but on the contrary recent data collected shows that many prisoners have severe damage done to the physc, mental state etc. This is relevant to our research because it addresses the importance of the mental state of inmates which may or may not have been looked into in the past. 

WEEK 03- by Jennifer A

Ahalt, Cyrus, et al. "Reducing the use and Impact of Solitary Confinement in Corrections." International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 41-48, ProQuest,

This article talks about the extensive use of isolation in many jails and prisons. The point of this article is to discuss possibilities for reform to improve the use of solitary confinement in the USA and to apply this change globally. This source is relevant because it focuses on the recommendation for improvement of the policies and practices of solitary confinement.

Cloud, David H.J.D., M.P.H., et al. "Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 105, no. 1, 2015, pp. 18-26, ProQuest,

This paper depicts the history of solitary confinement in the United States which extends back to 200 years and isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades.  The living condition in solitary confinement are been investigated in this article. This article is relevant because it addresses the excessive use of solitary confinement and its impacts by public health agencies.

WEEK 04 - by Duprih R

Johnston, E. L. "VULNERABILITY AND JUST DESERT: A THEORY OF SENTENCING AND MENTAL ILLNESS." The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 103, no. 1, 2013, pp. 147-230, ProQuest,

Summary: This source begins its research from a particular perspective, starting with those who are mentally ill and the path that they walk being incarcerated within a prison. Their first challenge is the mere fact that they have a mental illness which in many cases makes them more prone to sexual abuse and solitary confinement. With this in mind, solitary confinement would be a major stressor on their phycological states of mind in addition to the struggles that mental illness. This article is useful because we can begin to look at all the different factors involved in solitary confinement. Furthermore, some inmates can be more effected than others during their time in a prison or jail facility.

 Bosworth, Mary, and Blerina Kellezi. "Developing a Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention." Prison Service Journal, no. 205, 2013, pp. 10, ProQuest,

Summary: This source talks about a system that is being introduced called the "Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention (MQLD)" this program identifies the best practices used during incarceration and the things that are helpful and what is not. Furthermore, this program allows inmates to discuss what they felt was helpful and with this feedback can help to make life in detention better for all. This resource is helpful because it helps to identify a program that is helping to improve life within prisons. 

WEEK 04- by Jennifer A

Rogan, Mary. "Human Rights and Correctional Health Policy: A View from Europe.” International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 3-9, ProQuest,

The aim of this article is to discuss the protection of human rights by correctional healthcare. The paper focuses on the area of European prison law and policy in the aspect of prison health. It also depicts the resolution of the European court of human rights and the policies generated by the European committee for the prevention of torture. This article is relevant because we will be looking at the protection of human rights from the view of Europe.

Kapoor, Reena. "Taking the Solitary Confinement Debate Out of Isolation." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 42, no. 1, 2014, pp. 2-6, ProQuest,

This article points out the use of solitary confinement, specifically with mentally ill inmates. It talks about the experiences of inmates placed in isolation for a long period of time, also focuses on how the use of solitary confinement has increased over the years and its harmful effects. This article is relevant because it has helped to raise public awareness about the possible harms of solitary confinement through the “Stop Solitary movement” in the United States.

WEEK 05- by Duprih R

Jewkes, Yvonne. "Prison Planning and Design: Learning from the Past and Looking to the Future." Prison Service Journal, no. 231, 2017, pp. 15, ProQuest,

Summary: This source talks about the idea that looking forward towards new ideas is the best way to help inmates feel better about rehabilitation. As opposed to looking at past constructs and ideas, creating new ways and ideas is the best way to have a better outcome. New programs, new committees and set ups help to move past old issues and create better environments. This source is important and relevant because looking towards better plans for rehabilitation is the best way to achieve just that.  

Parkes, Debra. "Solitary Confinement, Prisoner Litigation, and the Possibility of a Prison Abolitionist Lawyering Ethic." Canadian Journal of Law and Society, vol. 32, no. 2, 2017, pp. 165-185, ProQuest, 

Summary: This source touches on 3 major aspects of solitary confinement in relation to the litigation aspect in connection to the law and how it has affected the overall incarceration system. Also discovering the different aspects of prisoner rights and what that means towards the legal systems and the different revisions that can and should be made in trying to reach the positive goal of rehabilitation. 

WEEK 05- by Jennifer A

Gallagher, Shaun. "The Cruel and Unusual Phenomenology of Solitary Confinement." Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, 2014, pp. 8, ProQuest,

This article focuses on the psychology of solitary confinement and its use in the legal context. The writer frowns at the fact that there is no agreement on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment” and also no agreement on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of legal phrase. The writer believes that we can find a moral agreement of the meaning of “cruelty’ by looking precisely at the psychology of solitary confinement.

Hagan, Brian O., et al. "History of Solitary Confinement is Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Individuals Recently Released from Prison." Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 2017, ProQuest,, doi: 

This research evaluates the relationship between solitary confinement and the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in a group of recently released former inmates. The study shows the percentage of former inmates with the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and most of these inmates have had a history of solitary confinement. The relevance of this study is to show that post-traumatic stress disorder is present in inmates with a history of solitary confinement than those without.

WEEK 06- by Duprih R

Haney, Craig. Reforming Punishment: Psychological Limits to the Pains of Imprisonment. American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, Washington, 2006, ProQuest, 

Summary: This source talks about the original cause of crime and how the attempt to prevent crime has only caused more pain in regard to the inmates incarcerated. In turn inmates are often times more and more violent and show less signs of preparing for release. Furthermore, many policies that are in place show that many with mental illness are incarcerated and don’t have the programs or groups that are needed to better prepare them for their release date. And lastly, he challenges the current state of the rules and regulations within the prison system, and he encourages those who are in the medical field to challenge the current things that effect the minds of those incarcerated.  

Medlicott, D. (1999). Surviving in the time machine. Time & Society, 8(2-3), 211-230. Retrieved from 

Summary: This source talks about the different pains and obstacles that prisoners face and how it has caused high rates of suicide/suicide attempts and with this many thing must change regardless of the fact that prison must cause change. In gaining positive change organizing suicide awareness programs is a great way to prevent this, which is a major part of the reform needed in the prisons. This is relevant to our research because in finding the answer to whether or not solitary confinement is humane, we will be able to identify through our research what is negative and what needs to improve.  

WEEK 06- by Jennifer A

Appelbaum, Kenneth L. "American Psychiatry should Join the Call to Abolish Solitary Confinement." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 43, no. 4, 2015, pp. 406-415, ProQuest,

 In Appelbaum’s article, he discusses the widespread and excessive use of solitary confinement in the United States and how it creates serious risks to the physical and mental health of all inmates. Appelbaum claims that the American academy of psychiatry has led in the effort to restrict solitary confinement for inmates with serious mental illness but has not taking same stance for other inmates. He suggests all APA, along with other organisations devoted to mental health to join in opposing the practice of prolonged solitary confinement.

O'Donnell, lan. "The Survival Secrets of Solitaries." The Psychologist, vol. 29, no. 3, 2016, pp. 184-187, ProQuest,

This article examines the survival secrets of solitaries. O’Donnell expresses his difficulty to imagine a more disappointing and disempowering place than a solitary confinement cell. He discusses that mental health difficulties arise with disturbing regularity, when opportunities for meaningful engagement are stripped away. The essence of this study is to show the increase in mental health issues in inmates with a history of solitary confinement.

WEEK 07- by Duprih R

Wasserman, Gail A., and Larkin S. McReynolds. "Suicide Risk at Juvenile Justice Intake." Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior, vol. 36, no. 2, 2006, pp. 239-49, ProQuest,

Summary:  This source looks at the prison system in the juvenile sector and sees what the risks are, when extended isolation is a factor and suicide is a major result. Furthermore, in analyzing the many factors to incarceration, whether it be substance abuse, eating or mental disorder suicide is extremely prevalent in youth who are convicted for a crime. This is relevant to our research because suicide is a major result of solitary confinement and being able to see how many it affects can be the determining factor to if should be banned or not. 

 Forsythe, B. (2004). Loneliness and cellular confinement in english prisons 1878-1921. British Journal of Criminology, 44(5), 759-770. Retrieved from 

Summary: This source aims to bring light to the history of solitary confinement and how it was viewed and what it entailed. By examining solitary confinement as a whole we are able to identify the issues and the things that can be isolated that need to be changed due to the new modern movement. 

WEEK 07- by Jennifer A

Ahalt, Cyrus, and Brie Williams. "Reforming Solitary-Confinement Policy -- Heeding a Presidential Call to Action." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 374, no. 18, 2016, pp. 1704-1706, ProQuest,

In Ahalt’s article, he suggests that the U.S. health professions can work with criminal policymakers to assess the risk of health-related harm in solitary confinement. He also looked at the Norway halden prison as a model for partnership. The relevance of this article is to discuss the progressive reform of prisons.


This article depicts the percentage of inmates in solitary confinement who are mentally ill and how this violates the Americans with disabilities act. In Knowles’ article, she made it known that inmates with mental illness cannot be excluded from participation or be denied the benefits of programs and activities of a public entity under the Americans with Disabilities act. This article is relevant because so many inmates with mental illness are on a daily basis isolated and deprived off their rights.

WEEK 08- by Duprih R

Bartlett, A., Frater, A., & Hyde, S. (2018). "Suicide in prisons: An international study of prevalence and contributory factors": Comment. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(2), 106-107. Retrieved from

This article explores the many contributing factors of prison and how many inmates make it to solitary in the first place. In many cases they are bound by the drug and substance exchange within the prison walls and often times as a result find themselves in isolation. And to go even deeper many sections within any given prison are under staffed and with that they have a hard time keeping the trade numbers low and therefore, have a growing number or inmates in solitary. 

Rutter, P. A. (2010). The pains of imprisonment. Death Studies, 34(2), 186-191. Retrieved from

In this article, the writers begin to sum up a book where they identify the the different aspects of suicide and how it may come into play in different inmates lives. The many things that separate the single and multiple suicide attempt inmates and how those things are important. 

WEEK 08 - by Jennifer A

Kaba, Fatos, M.A., et al. "Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm among Jail Inmates." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 104, no. 3, 2014, pp. 442-447, ProQuest,

In Kaba's article, he analyses and gave a better understanding of self harm among inmates in correctional institutions. Kaba examined data from medical records on 244,699 incacerations in the New York City jail system from Jan 2010 to Jan 2013. it was discovered that 2182 of the incaceration were self harm. This article shows that after several investigation, self harm is found to be associated with being in solitary confinement. Kaba claims that because of this finding, the New York City jail system has adjusted its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to a clinical setting and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness.

Reyes, Hernán. "The Worst Scars are in the Mind: Psychological Torture."International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 89, no. 867, 2007, pp. 591-617, ProQuest,, doi:

This article examines solitary confinement as an example of psychological torture method. Reyes analyses torture during interrogation as a method that do not physically assault the body but yet involves severe psychological pain and suffering. This article depicts that psychological methods which do not result in ill treatment when considered in isolation, amount to torture when applied with other techniques over a long period of time. The excess of this article is to address the use of torture over a long period of time and its effects on inmates.