Annotated Bibliography - Political Correctness in Fiction

1.     Ross, Andrew, and Manthia Diawara. “A Symposium on Popular Culture and Political Correctness.” Social Text, Oct. 1993, pp. 1–39., doi:10.2307/466387.

A discussion of ideas of the interchange between popular culture and political correctness. The article is the result of a panel held at the annual convention of the Modern Language Association in December 1992 by the MLA’s Popular Culture Division and posits, “Can popular culture be politically correct?” (Ross, p. 1) The journal article is not explicit on its source type, whether it be primary or secondary but is notably academic. The relevance of the source to my project pitch, “Should political correctness override authorial intention?” is highly topical, the very nature of this journal article posits a similar inquiry and provides relatively up to date information on political correctness in popular culture and works to answer if whether the former can affect the latter. This will assist me in answering my question, for it is not a matter of if it can, but if it should, however the source nevertheless remains beneficial as a sound board.

2.     Purves, Libby. “Political Correctness Who Benefits?” RSA Journal, vol. 147, no. 5489, 1999, pp. 46–53., www.jstor.org/stable/41380208?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

The journal article assumes the position of a lecture, and its main theme can be summarized as; “political correctness protects the weak but extreme examples have made it a laughing stock.” (Purves, p. 46) Its very title asks who benefits from political correctness, and this question is answered briefly at the start. To sum the article, the writer endeavours to glean insight into the issue itself. This is a primary academic source. The relevance of the source to my project pitch is beneficial in answering one immediate inquiry, assuming a pop culture icon becomes politically correct, who stands to gain from this? Who is the target audience for political correctness? That’s what this source can help me to address in my project pitch.

3.     Arnett, Robert P. “‘Casino Royale’ and Franchise Remix: James Bond as Superhero.” Film Criticism, vol. 33, no. 3, 2009, pp. 1–16., www.jstor.org/stable/44019224?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

This source likens itself to the film critic and assumes the position of James Bond joining the superhero genre. The opening sentence says, “Popular media and industry reporting often claim films like Casino Royale (Martin Campbell, 2006), Batman Begins (Christopher Nolan, 2005), The Incredible Hulk (Louis Leterrier, 2008), and Superman Returns (Bryan Singer, 2006) "reboot" their franchises (e.g., Cohen 2008).” (Arnett, p. 1) Ultimately, this journal article attempts to show insight into why James Bond has become a superhero with the titular protagonist being portrayed by Daniel Craig. This source is primary and is academic/peer reviewed. How will this source be relevant to my project/episode pitch? My episode will have a feature on James Bond exploring the ramifications of his influence in the modern-day Hollywood, in other words, with Bond’s entry into the superhero genre, this exposes him to popular criticism and he becomes a prime candidate for politically motivated messages. Can Bond still be British if he’s not Caucasian? This source will ultimately help me to focus my feature on Bond and provide opportunities for considering new avenues of thought.

4.     Grant, Charles. “Ghostbusters.” Sight and Sound, July 2016, pp. 16–17.

This source functions as a film review of 2016’s Ghostbusters, by professional film critic Charles Grant, it was featured in a peer reviewed magazine, and thus is a primary source of information. How will this be relevant to my episode pitch? I have a feature which will discuss the movie in hopes to elucidate further upon my main question seen above under reference #1. With the choice to not only diversify the cast of the original premise of Ghostbusters, but to remake the gender of the original source material characters, this film review will allow me to illustrate to others how political correctness can go too far.

5.     Ermarth, Michael. “THE TRANSFORMATION OF HERMENEUTICS: 19TH CENTURY ANCIENTS AND 20THCENTURY MODERNS.” The Monist, vol. 64, no. 2, Apr. 1981, pp. 175–194., www.jstor.org/stable/27902690?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

This journal article is concerned with Hermeneutics (the act of interpretation – fanciful manner of rendering one’s opinion) in the 19th century to the 20th century and considers such topics as, “literary criticism, history, sociology, anthropology, political science, philosophy… “  (Ermarth, p. 175) This is a primary, academic source. How is this source relevant to my project pitch? I will have a feature focused primarily on the subject of political correctness, and one may even argue that political correctness is a subject of interpretation, the source on Hermeneutics demonstrates this act of interpretation in topological areas, but most importantly in political science which is certainly to produce political correctness.

6.     Andrews, Edna. “Cultural Sensitivity and Political Correctness: The Linguistic Problem of Naming.” American Speech , vol. 71, no. 4, 1996, pp. 389-404., doi:10.2307/455713.

This journal article can be summed in one sentence, as written by the author, “THIS ESSAY ADDRESSES some of the linguistic concepts that underlie the political and highly sensitive issue of what is referred to by English speakers today as "cultural sensitivity”.” (Andrews, p. 389). This is also colloquially referred to as political correctness as revealed by the author. This is a primary academic source. How will this source be relevant to my project pitch? As explained earlier, I will have a feature on political correctness as a subject, and this source acts as a means to identify and explain the cultural sensitivity of the Western world.

7.     Ackroyd, Judith, and Andrew Pilkington. “KEYNOTE: ‘You're Not Allowed to Say That’ Minefields and Political Correctness.” Caribbean Quarterly, vol. 53, no. 1/2, June 2007, pp. 49–62., www.jstor.org/stable/40654972?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

This journal article lends itself to the inner workings of political correctness in use of language. In other words, due to cultural sensitivity, one is not allowed to speak certain terms as they are deemed politically incorrect. This is a primary academic source. How is this source relevant to my project pitch? This will act as a conclusion to my feature on political correctness as a subject by illustrating how due to its influence on language, it has more and more ensnared itself on and around the media. Where it would have been acceptable to speak a certain way in an older James Bond film for instance, political correctness has made doubly sure that in defiance of the source material, this new portrayal behaves the way that society wants it too because some people are too sensitive to deal with it.

8.     Canada, Statistics. “A Table of Results Outlining Statistical Data on Motion Pictures Theatres Revenue Every 2 Years.” 27 Nov. 2017.

This is raw data which shows revenue statistics on motion pictures theatres (film releases) in Canada every 2 years. There’s not a whole lot to say about this source as it lacks subjective data, it is objective data, they are numbers. What can be said is that the information is a primary source and belongs to statistics research. How will this be relevant? I will have a feature discussing revenue earnings of movies in Canada (The movies are not named in the data but one can argue that based on its release, movies that came out in 2017 will be relevant.)

9.     Government of Canada. www.canada.ca/en/canadian-heritage/services/film-video-policies/investment-canadian-film-distribution.html.

This government document explains the policy on media distribution in the Canada/U.S sector, and is meant to promote a healthier Canadian film industry. This is a primary source of information, and is a government distributed document. How will this be relevant to my project pitch? I will have a short feature on film policy in Canada and its relations with the U.S., which will also add on to my previous feature of revenue earnings of movies in Canada, and help show the demographic of moviegoers of Canada, or rather, the percentage of Canadians who are moviegoers. Furthermore, this film policy also helps illustrate cultural sensitivity in Canada, ergo, “promote a healthier Canadian film industry.” That sounds like political correctness to me.

10.  Anderson, Richard. “Trigger Warning: James Bond Gets a Politically Correct Reboot in New Novel.” The Rebel.Media, 14 Sept. 2015, www.therebel.media/trigger_warning_james_bond.

This website article/blog is written about James Bond getting a politically correct reboot in the form of a new book. The blogger writes that this new book features an openly homosexual MI6 agent who a friend of James Bond is, among other new features such as a theme of smoking causing cancer, and so on that call into question, Bond’s lifestyle in Ian Fleming’s vision of the character. How will this be relevant to my project pitch? This will be combined with the feature on James Bond outlined above under reference #3, and this particular source will explore how political correctness has already wormed its way into the world of James Bond.

11.  Calton, Chris. “The Politically Correct Perversion Of Superhero Movies.” The Liberty Conservative, 25 May 2016, www.thelibertyconservative.com/politically-correct-perversion-superhero-movies/.

This article written by Chris Calton of The Liberty Conservative is a blog entry which concerns itself with the cultural sensitivity/political correctness of the superhero genre. The opening sentence relates how Marvel had just published their new line, The Ultimates, which introduced revisions of classic characters, such as Nick Fury. In the 616-mainstream continuity, Nick Fury was a tough as nails, military styled Caucasian man, in the Ultimates, Nick Fury was transformed to an African American bald man. The premise of the article is to discuss how political correctness has perverted the superhero genre in movies. This is a secondary source of information, and functions as a blog/news source. How will this be relevant to my project pitch? I will have a feature discussing the superhero genre in my episode that will tie into answering the overall question of whether political correctness should override the source material, but more specifically, how do these changes affect fans of this genre in the long run? Are the changes really that bad? Do they pervert the genre?

12.  Holmes, Mannie. “Michael B. Jordan on ‘Fantastic Four’ Casting Backlash: I’Ll ‘Shoulder All This Hate.’” Variety, 22 May 2015, 4:58PM, variety.com/2015/film/news/michael-b-jordan-fantastic-four-casting-backlash-shouldering-hate-1201504000/.

This is a short article discussing Michael B. Jordan’s response to the fan outcry of his casting of Johnny Storm/Human Torch in 2015’s The Fantastic Four. This is a secondary source of information functioning as a blog/news source. How will this be relevant to my project pitch? It continues upon my feature of the superhero genre and will help me to illustrate how political correctness in the superhero genre can lead to outcry when fan favourites get casted by someone that doesn’t match the physical description of a well-known character.

13.  Hudson, Jerome. “Clint Eastwood Warns Political Correctness ‘Killing’ Country: ‘We’Ve Lost Our Sense of Humor.’” BreitBart, 22 May 2017, www.breitbart.com/big-hollywood/2017/05/22/clinton-eastwood-political-correctness-is-ruining-america/.

This article presents a feature in which well-known actor, Clint Eastwood, bashes political correctness relating how it is killing the country (America). He also warns that we as people have lost our sense of humour. This article will be relevant as a source of second-hand account, if even a famous person can say political correctness has gone too far, then surely someone will listen, right?

14.  Masood, Abdullah. “How Over-Political Correctness Is Ruining Nerdy Cinema.” Geeks.Media, 23 Nov. 2017, geeks.media/how-over-political-correctness-is-ruining-nerdy-cinema.

This article is about how the extremeness of political correctness is currently ruining nerdy cinema, (Think of franchises such as The Hunger Games, Lord of the Rings, the MCU, the DCEU, and so on.) The article mentions how political correctness began with noble intent, but now Hollywood has taken things too far. How will this be relevant to my project pitch? It will serve as an add-on to my feature on the superhero genre, and function as a conclusion of sorts. Overall, all my references will create one story to tell to hopefully persuade others that political correctness does more harm than good.