Sullivan, Jonathan, and Lei Xie. “Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet.” The China Quarterly, no. 198, 2009, pp. 422–432. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27756459.


This source is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article. It analyzes and examines the use of the internet in Chinese environmental activism. Besides allowing for the access and spread of (sometimes banned) information, the internet also plays host to electronic environmental non-governmental organizations, which do work both online and in the real world. Personal social networks (an individual’s own connections) ease the spread of activism—in information and participation, both online and in the real world. Activist networks are created and held together by a collective identity; online, hyperlinks within websites connect users to similar information and form a kind of network as well. The usage of the internet for activism and social networks affecting activism also applies to activism in the case of the Kinder Morgan pipeline, how protesters organize, and how information is spread, which relates to the planned “people” vignette of our podcast, where we will discuss activism opposing the pipeline.


Hage, Robert. “Risk, Prevention, and Opportunity: Northern Gateway and the marine environment.” Macdonald-Laurier Institute for Public Policy, Canadian Electronic Library, 2015.


This source is a scholarly one. This paper states that the entire situation surrounding the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline was fraught with misconceptions, failed aspirations, and miscommunication. Canada is more prepared for an oil spill than many think. The pipeline was meant to stretch from Bruderheim, Alberta, to Kitimat, Alaska. Concerns from fishers (including First Nations) surrounded the proposed tanker routes, as they would travel through areas of abundant fish. Any pipeline company must have a comprehensive risk management program to avoid spills or leakages—the Joint Review Panel found that Northern Gateway’s was satisfactory. Concerns from all parties were expressed over the nature of diluted bitumen, an oil that possibly sinks instead of floating in water, and agreed that more research was required. The Canada Shipping Act has strong regulations for safety with oil tankers. The Joint Review Panel approved the pipeline with 209 binding conditions. The Tanker Safety Panel found that Canada needed to be more prepared for oil spills. Multiple politicians and government workers highlighted the need to consult with and address the environmental concerns of First Nations groups, also providing economic opportunity and partnership. The Joint Review Panel found the this pipeline was in Canada’s best interest and recommended establishing a citizens’ advisory council to promote environmentally safe practices, ensure jobs for Aboriginal people along the pipeline, and ensure that First Nations can obtain equity interest in the project. The Northern Gateway Pipeline is a sort of precursor to the Kinder Morgan Pipeline and was defeated on the same grounds that Kinder Morgan could be. Investigating the Northern Gateway Pipeline shows commonalities in pipeline construction, concerns, and approval, as well as giving more information about the situation surrounding that pipeline.