Ivory Trade 2 week 8- Victoria Bicknell


Flannery, Maura C. “Evolution: Always New.” The American Biology Teacher, vol. 67, no. 2, 2005, pp. 113–117. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/4451795.

This peer reviewed article by Flannery discusses biology and evolution. She discusses the idea of evolution and the role that humans play in said changes that we are seeing play out currently. This article may be a good starting point to understand the damage of which we are imposing on the elephants in a biological manner. They need ivory and have been evolving for centuries to have larger and sturdier tusks that are used for vital every day activities. With human interference over the last few hundred (most prominently 2009) their numbers have decreased to a point where even genetic diversity is lacking, putting a lot at stake for these creatures, elephants and rhinos alike.


Williams, Jonah M. “The Convoluted Nature of the African Ivory Trade: Possible Solutions for Curbing the Destructive Nature of Poaching and Promoting Elephant Conservation.” Consilience, no. 15, 2016, pp. 181–192. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26188764.8WEEK 9

Williams’ peer reviewed article discusses a lot of key aspects in that must be brought to light when discussing the ivory trade. The author mentions that ivory trade and the possibilities it could bring to the economy, both in africa and in china but he also notes that ivory is used for nothing more than decoration, meaning it has no real purpose to us. Secondly, the author addresses certain issues such as a possible overpopulation if the ivory trade is banned entirely and the cultural situation in which westerners know very little and have little to do with. The ivory trade is complex and there are many things to note, and this article illustrates the different sides to the ivory trade

Ivory Trade (1) - Week 8 - Varsha Ramnarine Singh

Week 8

Schmidt, Michael J., and Richard Ross. “Working Elephants.” Scientific American, vol. 274, no. 1, 1996, pp. 82–87. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24989359

In Schmidt’s article, he discusses the use of elephants in the Myanmar jungles to help transport logs for logging. When this article was published, Myanmar was one of the last countries in the world who continued the tradition of logging through the use of elephants. Through the declining population of elephants, this traditional way of life is put in danger of being lost in addition to losing the Asian elephants that remain. The suggested solution is to breed elephants to not only revive the elephant population but to keep this tradition alive. Schmidt’s article is one that highlights the consequences that come out of the ivory trade and why it should be stopped in terms of preserving the elephant population and the traditions. This would be used to further prove that the ivory trade should be stopped. 

Sekar, Nitin, et al. “In the Elephant's Seed Shadow: the Prospects of Domestic Bovids as Replacement Dispersers of Three Tropical Asian Trees.” Ecology, vol. 96, no. 8, 2015, pp. 2093–2105. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/43495151

In Sekar’s article he discusses how the African forest elephant and the one horned Rhinoceros are vital to their environments. He explores how their capability to swallow and digest large fruit seeds without damaging themselves helps to fertilize and spread the seeds of many different fruit trees along with any other vegetation that they may consume. In this they play a vital role in their environments and without them it would suffer greatly. Sekar’s article is one that highlights the value that the African forest elephant and one horned Rhino play in their environment. This would be used to prove why they would benefit from the ivory trades end.





Sullivan, Jonathan, and Lei Xie. “Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet.” The China Quarterly, no. 198, 2009, pp. 422–432. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/27756459.


This source is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal article. It analyzes and examines the use of the internet in Chinese environmental activism. Besides allowing for the access and spread of (sometimes banned) information, the internet also plays host to electronic environmental non-governmental organizations, which do work both online and in the real world. Personal social networks (an individual’s own connections) ease the spread of activism—in information and participation, both online and in the real world. Activist networks are created and held together by a collective identity; online, hyperlinks within websites connect users to similar information and form a kind of network as well. The usage of the internet for activism and social networks affecting activism also applies to activism in the case of the Kinder Morgan pipeline, how protesters organize, and how information is spread, which relates to the planned “people” vignette of our podcast, where we will discuss activism opposing the pipeline.


Hage, Robert. “Risk, Prevention, and Opportunity: Northern Gateway and the marine environment.” Macdonald-Laurier Institute for Public Policy, Canadian Electronic Library, 2015.


This source is a scholarly one. This paper states that the entire situation surrounding the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline was fraught with misconceptions, failed aspirations, and miscommunication. Canada is more prepared for an oil spill than many think. The pipeline was meant to stretch from Bruderheim, Alberta, to Kitimat, Alaska. Concerns from fishers (including First Nations) surrounded the proposed tanker routes, as they would travel through areas of abundant fish. Any pipeline company must have a comprehensive risk management program to avoid spills or leakages—the Joint Review Panel found that Northern Gateway’s was satisfactory. Concerns from all parties were expressed over the nature of diluted bitumen, an oil that possibly sinks instead of floating in water, and agreed that more research was required. The Canada Shipping Act has strong regulations for safety with oil tankers. The Joint Review Panel approved the pipeline with 209 binding conditions. The Tanker Safety Panel found that Canada needed to be more prepared for oil spills. Multiple politicians and government workers highlighted the need to consult with and address the environmental concerns of First Nations groups, also providing economic opportunity and partnership. The Joint Review Panel found the this pipeline was in Canada’s best interest and recommended establishing a citizens’ advisory council to promote environmentally safe practices, ensure jobs for Aboriginal people along the pipeline, and ensure that First Nations can obtain equity interest in the project. The Northern Gateway Pipeline is a sort of precursor to the Kinder Morgan Pipeline and was defeated on the same grounds that Kinder Morgan could be. Investigating the Northern Gateway Pipeline shows commonalities in pipeline construction, concerns, and approval, as well as giving more information about the situation surrounding that pipeline.



Episode Pitch Re-Upload Abby and Maja

In October of 2017, The Toronto Star ran an article by Grand Chief Serge Simon called “First Nations Confident Courts Will Stop Kinder Morgan Pipeline.” The article features Grand Chief Simon voicing his oddly uncommon opinion that even though Prime Minister Justin Trudeau himself has given the controversial pipeline expansion the federal nod of approval, it will never break ground. I read this article and was immediately drawn in, potentially biased as I may be as an identifying Aboriginal person and an informed BC resident, the optimism and tone of the article struck a chord in me. It made me question: can we, the people, oppose the word of the government? Do we need to?

The pipeline concerns all Canadians. The Kinder Morgan expansion would mean significant deforestation and the possibility of an oil spill in the Pacific Ocean, which would be nothing short of an environmental catastrophe that would affect not only the wildlife and ecosystem, but the Canadians that inhabit the land.

The Kinder Morgan pipeline remains a looming symbol of Canada’s presence in the oil industry and how it affects our environment, our precious “home and native land.” But should the health of the economy trump that of the environment? , should the environment hold more importance than the economy? Or is there a solution where both can coexist effectively?  

This topic is also one that specifically concerns the First Nations people of our country, and the question of how and why they hold so much power over the land that is no longer theirs. Grand Chief Simon outlines that the First Nations people hold more power than you would initially think. The obligations the government holds to its First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people are significant, and arguably rightly so. The Supreme Court of Canada recognizes in our Constitution that the rights to many traditional Aboriginal territories were never ceded through treaties, including much of the land this pipeline is meant to be built on. So really, the word of the Aboriginal people isn’t just of figurative importance, but literal as well.

Pipelines in Canada remain under much debate. While BC’s provincial NDP government remains incredibly opposed to the pipeline expansion, just over the Rockies, Alberta’s own NDP government supports it strongly. For Alberta’s economy and job market, the benefits of expanding the Canadian oil industry are huge. The pipeline expansion would be a boost of the current decline of Alberta’s oil market, and would create reliable jobs for thousands of Albertans currently suffering a high unemployment rate.

In this episode, we will be exploring the economic benefits of the Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion, going into depth on the environmental impacts, and question of why the First Nations people in particular have so much to say and do with it all.

We are committed in this episode to finding how this pipeline affects Canadians specifically, what is at stake, and the power we hold as people to oppose the government “representing us.”

I’m Maja Nordine, and I’m Abby Howland, and this is Power to the People.

Podcast Pitch (reupload) Katlyn McCarthy


As a director, your style and trademarks are everything, it's what differentiates you from the crowd, and eventually allows you to create an expecting audience. Wes Anderson is a director who's known for his iconic style. his use of old pop music tied with slow motion shots, and his long panning shots are tell tale signs that you're watching an Anderson movie, but what hes most commonly known for and really seperates him from the rest is his use of colour and lately it seems as though his favourite colour is white. In light of his upcoming claymation movie "Isle of Dogs", Anderson is facing accusations of whitewashing, due to his casting choices .  Anthony Bearteaux, a writer for The San Diego Union-Tribune shed light on the controversy regarding the film. He states that while the film is Set in Japan and heavily influenced by the japanese director Akira Kurosawa, the cast seems to be rather eurocentric. He addresses that there are 6 asian cast memebers, but the spotlight isn't directed towards them, its directed towards Scarlette Johansen and Tilda Swinton, both of which came under attack previously for portraying other asian charachters in the movies Doctor Strange and ghost in the shell. This coincidence brings up the question of whether or not Isle of dogs is just another example of hollywoods recent asian erasure or if Anderson has a method to his madness. This isn't the first time Anderson has come under fire from his racial choices for his charachters, but some of these past choices have had deeper meaning and have actually been used satirize racism. so could this be what he wants to do with his new movie, or could his choices simply be skin deep and just fueling hollywoods discrimination towards authentic asain actors? 

Wes Anderson has a complex as being a kind shy man who doesn't like to step on peoples toes or have a great deal of attention on him, so it's hard to believe that he could do something so discriminatory on purpose. On the other hand, Anderson is indeed a rathr privelged white male and though he may not do so intentionally he may be ignorant to the effects that his choices make, because he is not a minority and has not faced the discrimination that they have. Though this is not as bad as being blatantly racist, it's still inexcusable to not be aware of your audience and social issues that your film could bring up.As a writer you must be aware of absolutely everything, and as someone as particular and thoughtful as Anderson, it seems unlikely that he could overlook such a large flaw.So is i ask again, Is this another case of racism in film, or is it an overlooked issue from a man completely envoloped in his own world of catering to the aesthic of his films?

Solitary confinement- Pitch Podcast by Jennifer and Duprih

Prison door closing * 

Prison door closing* 

Prison door closing * 


Duprih: Among inmates who had spent 30 or more days in solitary confinement within the last 12 months or since coming to any prison or jail facility, 54% of those in prison and 68% of those in jail had been in a fight or had been written up for assaulting other inmates or staff. 

Dramatic pause count to 5 

Jennifer: Hi, Im Jennifer 

Duprih : and im duprih 

Jennifer: in this podcast we will discuss, solitary confinement in Canada. And how the treatment of inmates within this program has been detrimental to their overall well-being. 

Duprih: This extremely relevant topic open up the conversation regarding humane and inhumane treatment towards human being. 

Duprih: In many places around the world people are fighting for rights to a safe environment and the right to life.  

Jennifer & Duprih: How we treat those who are in rehabilitation is a depiction of our humanity.  

Jennifer: Furthermore, in our podcast we will be responding to an opinion piece written by the editorial board for the Sunday review, dated 2017, which expands upon the justice department banding solitary confinement for young people In federal prisons 

Duprih: This article discuses an important topic around whether or not solitary confinement is inhumane, and if so why are adults still spending extended amounts of time in solitary confinement.  

Duprih: How can solitary confinement be suitable for adults yet; young people are exempt?  

Jennifer: Well we are here to find out! 

Duprih: Many people would think keeping a human being caged up for 23 hours a day, is a mind-blowing concept. Others believe that this is the best way to correct and rehabilitate inmates who commit crimes. 

Jennifer: We believe that this is not the right method to correct any sort of behavior. Matter of fact, as our research will show, only begets more violence, mental health issues and certainly doesn’t correct the negative behaviors of the past. 

Wes Anderson and Whitewashing (working title)

By: Katlyn McCarthy

Topic Change


Weiner, Jonah. “How Wes Anderson mishandles race.” Slate Magazine, 27 Sept. 2007, www.slate.com/articles/arts/culturebox/2007/09/unbearable_whiteness.html.

This article is all about the different characters roles that Wes Anderson has used in his films that can be portrayed as racist. This is a direct relation to the white washing of Anderson's new film that I discuss in my podcast and I want to bring it into my argument and compare these characters to the use of white actors in the place of culturally accurate actors. I intend to use this source as my main argument in my favourite vignette where I analyse Anderson's use of non-white actors in his other movie and how this compares to his new movie Isle of Dogs.

France, Lisa Respers. “#ExpressiveAsians hashtag used to fire back at Hollywood whitewashing.” CNN, Cable News Network, 11 Sept. 2017, www.cnn.com/2017/09/11/entertainment/expressive-asians-whitewashing/index.html.

This article by Lisa Respers France talks about Nancy Wang Yueng's statement in her book that claims that the reason that Asian actors are not cast is because they are thought to not be able to show expressions very well. When this judgement made its way to the public, Asian people everywhere went to twitter starting the hashtag #ExpressiveAsians. This article is helpful in geting to the source of why whitwashing of asian charachters happens, and also shows a response that works in disclaiming such sterotypical (and frankly racist) statements that people in the film industry use to save themselves from being cast as a racist in the media.

Rose, Steve. “Ghost in the Shell's whitewashing: does Hollywood have an Asian problem?” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 31 Mar. 2017, www.theguardian.com/film/2017/mar/31/ghost-in-the-shells-whitewashing-does-hollywood-have-an-asian-problem.

This article is about the white washing of the character Motoko Kusanagi in the live action movie of Ghost in the Shell. Scarlett Johansson’s was cast to play the role of the Japanese anime character and the fans were fast to call out the directors whitewashing. The fans were so outraged that they managed to get over 100,000 signatures on a petition saying that a Japanese actress should have been cast for the role.

This article is significant for my story because Scarlett Johansson is said to be starring in Wes Anderson's movie that may also be whitewashing an Asian centred movie. The article goes on to mention other films in which Asian roles have been whitewashing by Caucasian actors which would help me in my research towards comparing different racially compromising movies and seeing what they may have in common with each other. I want to use this article in one of my vignettes where I talk about why Anderson used actors who have been in previous scandals for the same whitewashing that he's doing. It also helps my podcast to show that it is not only Anderson who is making questionable casting choices.

Sage, Alyssa. “Marvel Responds to 'Doctor Strange' 'Whitewashing' Criticisms Over Tilda Swinton Casting.” Variety, 27 Apr. 2016, variety.com/2016/film/news/doctor-strange-whitewashing-tilda-swinton-marvel-1201762267/.

This article is referring to the other movie/actress addressed in my opinion piece. This article concerns Tilda Swinton (another star of Anderson's new movie) and her role as a Tibetan monk character, The Ancient One. it goes without saying that fans were again outraged by the whitewashing that Marvel tried to cover up by saying that “The Ancient One is a title that is not exclusively held by any one character, but rather a moniker passed down through time, and in this particular film the embodiment is Celtic,”. Sage's article is the only one i've seen so far where the staffing team adresses the issue.Although this would be ideal, the fact that they try to make up excuses instead of apologizing, does not help their case. 

By knowing that both actresses from the 2 sources above were in whitewashing scandals, specifically for portraying the role of Asian characters, why would Anderson choose them? was it a conscious choice or not? This is what I plan on addressing in my podcast and one again bringing to light that there have been multiple scandals revolving around the misuse of White actors in Asian roles.

Sharf, Zack. “Wes Anderson Explains Hayao Miyazaki's Influence on 'Isle of Dogs' and Stop-Motion Challenges.” – IndieWire, IndieWire, 15 Feb. 2018, www.indiewire.com/2018/02/wes-anderson-isle-of-dogs-hayao-miyazaki-inspiration-favorite-dog-films-1201928932/amp/.

Zach Sharf's article centers around an interview with Wes Anderson regarding his new movie Isle of Dogs. In this interview Anderson addresses how he integrated Akira Kurowsawa and Hayao Miyazaki's styles into his Japanese influenced movie. Anderson also touched upon the cast and problems that occur during stop motion movies.

This is the first look we (the audience) have gotten into Anderson's choices and reasons for this movie. Although Anderson mentioned the cast, he did not bring up any of the controversy behind it. He did though, give a small explanation for the cast saying, “Most of the actors are people who I either have worked with or who I have loved for years”.  This is something i can definitive use for my podcast when discussing why Anderson chose such a eurocentric cast. I can also talk about how he chooses to use Japanese culture in his movie and whether or not it is okay for him to actually do that. I will probably use this source in my introduction and bring up if he, a white man, has the right to make a Japanese style movie and if the casting is the only issue with this movie.

Yoshida, Emily. “What It's Like to Watch Isle of Dogs As a Japanese Speaker.” Slate Magazine, Slate, 5 Apr. 2018, slate.com/culture/2018/04/what-its-like-to-watchisle-of-dogsas-a-japanese-speaker.html.

This is a more recent popular source about Isle of dogs. Author Emily Yoshida brings a new perspective to Isle of Dogs and it's cultural issues. As a Japanese speaker Yoshida did not want to judge the movie straight away but after watching it she mentioned that the parts of the movie where there was people speaking Japanese it was muffled so she could not understand it and there was no use of subtitles in the movies. She also mentioned that the lettering on he movie posters seemed to have been through google translate because they were off from the real translation. 

I think this article would bring a different view to my podcast and especially show's that Anderson did not have as much respect for the culture as he should have and more used the Japanese culture for aesthetic reasons and not as a tribute to the directors who influenced him. I think this would greatly contribute to my introduction when discussing if Anderson has the right to use a culture that is not his own. I could easily use Yoshida's article to show that no, he does not really have the right because he does not give the culture the proper spotlight it deserves.

“Actors.” Data USA, 2015, datausa.io/profile/soc/272011/#demographics.

This is a statistical source about actors in america. It show's statistics and charts for education, employment, diversity, skills, and growth projections. I was most interested in the diversity section of this website because it shows the breakdown of actors in america by race. As of 2014/2015 Asian actors ranked the 3rd most popular race in show business with over 8.27 million actors in america alone. No surprise white actors ranked number 1 with over 107 million actors in america, occupying 74.6% of all actors in the USA. but still there seems to be no shortage of different Asian actors so there must be at least some Japanese actors that Wes Anderson could have used in his movie instead of making most of his cast white in a Japanese style film. This information can be important for my introduction when introducing the problem of whitewashing in my podcast episode. 

Dilley, Whitney crothers. The Cinema of Wes Anderson: Bringing Nostalgia to Life. Columbia University Press, 2017. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/dill18068.

This is an academic source from the YorkU library database. Although its a book, the chapters are broken down into the different movies that Anderson has created and the special qualities about them/what issues each movie addresses. For example chapter three is titled "Gender, Youth, and the Exploration of Masculinity in Bottle Rocket" and Chapter five is titled "The Interplay of Narrative Text, Language, and Film: Literary Influence and Intertextuality in The Royal Tenenbaums". For my podcast I want to do a vignette about the different films from Anderson's past that include other non-white actors portrayed in a poor light, so I believe that i can discuss what people seem to be more concerned with in these movies apart from the racial issues, (for example people are more concerned with the intertextuality of The Royal Tenenbaums but never mention the dodgy racial comments that Royal continually makes). It was extremely hard to find an academic source that I could relate to my podcast directly so this is the closest I could get.

Pieper, Katherine M., et al. “Race & Ethnicity in Independent Films: Prevalence of Underrepresented Directors and the Barriers They Face .” Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism University of Southern California.

This is an American government source (https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/Research-Art-Works-Sundance.pdf) regarding the hardships that different directors face in america. Though it does not directly correlate with Wes Anderson because he is not an underrepresented director it does draw attention to racial issues in Hollywood. This paper draws attention to how difficult it is for directors of different races to get higher budgets that white directors (such as Anderson) would be able to get for the same project. I believe i could use this information possibly in the middle of my podcast when I discuss racial issues in recent media including whitewashing in Isle of dogs and other popular movies, or in my intro or conclusion when educating my listeners on some of Hollywood's race issues.

Annotated: Solitary Confinement by Duprih and Jennifer


By Duprih R

Bureau of Justice Statistics- Use of Restrictive Housing in U.S Prisons And Jails , 2011-2012


: This site presents statistical data on the percentage of inmates who encounter restrictive housing and the demographics ( gay, black, white, disabled etc.) associated with those who spend time within this aspect of the prison facility. In analyzing the characteristics associated with these inmates people are able to see the connection between the facility and those who are placed within it. Such as; inmates who suffer from mental health, different types of sexuality, how old the inmate is etc. Another important aspect of this article is the length of time that an inmate might spend in restrictive housing and why they are there. Within the prison system certain actions equate to time spent within solitary confinement such as fights ( assaulting another inmate or staff) or rules broken within the facility, on the contrary, some inmates will be in solitary confinement for protection purposes as well, which is something that many prisons offer. 


By Jennifer Anyijiofor

Solitary Watch - Solitary Confinement and the Law, 2011.


This article introduces the legal conditions in which the practice of solitary confinement has been executed in U.S prisons and jails. it talks about how the constitution has limited and allowed solitary confinement, and it also includes a part on international law on solitary confinement. it also describes the tools used to challenge solitary confinement which are the Eight and Fourteenth Amendments of the Constitution. The article also investigates the opinions of the Supreme Court and how it's been interpreted. It gives an insight on the opinions and recommendation of the European Committee against torture.

WEEK 03 - by Duprih R

Gallagher, S. (2014). The cruel and unusual phenomenology of solitary confinement. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 8. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1627947670?accountid=15182 

Summary: In the battle between the courts and legal system defining what is cruel and the rights each individual is granted is a lengthy conversation. Furthermore, digging into the rights granted to prisoners and those who are incarcerated for lengthy sentences are often faced with the battle of solitary confinement and its obstacles. In connection to what is cruel and what defines rightful treatment, what must be decided is whether or not the different limitations of solitary confinement fit within the guidelines of humane treatment. This is relevant to our research because this begins to answer our question of whether or not solitary confinement is humane treatment.  

 Smith, P. S. (2006). The effects of solitary confinement on prison inmates: A brief history and review of the literature. Crime and Justice, 34, 441-528. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/61631390?accountid=15182 

Summary: The debate of solitary confinement used with convicted offenders has been up for debate for a long time and this article discusses the after effects of this type of punishment. Previous data collected of research on solitary confinement shows that many prisoners had no or little after effects, but on the contrary recent data collected shows that many prisoners have severe damage done to the physc, mental state etc. This is relevant to our research because it addresses the importance of the mental state of inmates which may or may not have been looked into in the past. 

WEEK 03- by Jennifer A

Ahalt, Cyrus, et al. "Reducing the use and Impact of Solitary Confinement in Corrections." International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 41-48, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1877748995?accountid=15182.

This article talks about the extensive use of isolation in many jails and prisons. The point of this article is to discuss possibilities for reform to improve the use of solitary confinement in the USA and to apply this change globally. This source is relevant because it focuses on the recommendation for improvement of the policies and practices of solitary confinement.

Cloud, David H.J.D., M.P.H., et al. "Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 105, no. 1, 2015, pp. 18-26, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1644296751?accountid=15182.

This paper depicts the history of solitary confinement in the United States which extends back to 200 years and isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades.  The living condition in solitary confinement are been investigated in this article. This article is relevant because it addresses the excessive use of solitary confinement and its impacts by public health agencies.

WEEK 04 - by Duprih R

Johnston, E. L. "VULNERABILITY AND JUST DESERT: A THEORY OF SENTENCING AND MENTAL ILLNESS." The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 103, no. 1, 2013, pp. 147-230, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1417521860?accountid=15182

Summary: This source begins its research from a particular perspective, starting with those who are mentally ill and the path that they walk being incarcerated within a prison. Their first challenge is the mere fact that they have a mental illness which in many cases makes them more prone to sexual abuse and solitary confinement. With this in mind, solitary confinement would be a major stressor on their phycological states of mind in addition to the struggles that mental illness. This article is useful because we can begin to look at all the different factors involved in solitary confinement. Furthermore, some inmates can be more effected than others during their time in a prison or jail facility.

 Bosworth, Mary, and Blerina Kellezi. "Developing a Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention." Prison Service Journal, no. 205, 2013, pp. 10, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1267810713?accountid=15182

Summary: This source talks about a system that is being introduced called the "Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention (MQLD)" this program identifies the best practices used during incarceration and the things that are helpful and what is not. Furthermore, this program allows inmates to discuss what they felt was helpful and with this feedback can help to make life in detention better for all. This resource is helpful because it helps to identify a program that is helping to improve life within prisons. 

WEEK 04- by Jennifer A

Rogan, Mary. "Human Rights and Correctional Health Policy: A View from Europe.” International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13, no. 1, 2017, pp. 3-9, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1877749011?accountid=15182.

The aim of this article is to discuss the protection of human rights by correctional healthcare. The paper focuses on the area of European prison law and policy in the aspect of prison health. It also depicts the resolution of the European court of human rights and the policies generated by the European committee for the prevention of torture. This article is relevant because we will be looking at the protection of human rights from the view of Europe.

Kapoor, Reena. "Taking the Solitary Confinement Debate Out of Isolation." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 42, no. 1, 2014, pp. 2-6, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1548789955?accountid=15182.

This article points out the use of solitary confinement, specifically with mentally ill inmates. It talks about the experiences of inmates placed in isolation for a long period of time, also focuses on how the use of solitary confinement has increased over the years and its harmful effects. This article is relevant because it has helped to raise public awareness about the possible harms of solitary confinement through the “Stop Solitary movement” in the United States.

WEEK 05- by Duprih R

Jewkes, Yvonne. "Prison Planning and Design: Learning from the Past and Looking to the Future." Prison Service Journal, no. 231, 2017, pp. 15, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1983666461?accountid=15182

Summary: This source talks about the idea that looking forward towards new ideas is the best way to help inmates feel better about rehabilitation. As opposed to looking at past constructs and ideas, creating new ways and ideas is the best way to have a better outcome. New programs, new committees and set ups help to move past old issues and create better environments. This source is important and relevant because looking towards better plans for rehabilitation is the best way to achieve just that.  

Parkes, Debra. "Solitary Confinement, Prisoner Litigation, and the Possibility of a Prison Abolitionist Lawyering Ethic." Canadian Journal of Law and Society, vol. 32, no. 2, 2017, pp. 165-185, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1940563399?accountid=15182http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cls.2017.16 

Summary: This source touches on 3 major aspects of solitary confinement in relation to the litigation aspect in connection to the law and how it has affected the overall incarceration system. Also discovering the different aspects of prisoner rights and what that means towards the legal systems and the different revisions that can and should be made in trying to reach the positive goal of rehabilitation. 

WEEK 05- by Jennifer A

Gallagher, Shaun. "The Cruel and Unusual Phenomenology of Solitary Confinement." Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, 2014, pp. 8, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1627947670?accountid=15182.

This article focuses on the psychology of solitary confinement and its use in the legal context. The writer frowns at the fact that there is no agreement on whether solitary confinement is a “cruel and unusual punishment” and also no agreement on the definition of the term “cruel” in the use of legal phrase. The writer believes that we can find a moral agreement of the meaning of “cruelty’ by looking precisely at the psychology of solitary confinement.

Hagan, Brian O., et al. "History of Solitary Confinement is Associated with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Individuals Recently Released from Prison." Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 2017, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1945129709?accountid=15182, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-017-0138-1. 

This research evaluates the relationship between solitary confinement and the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in a group of recently released former inmates. The study shows the percentage of former inmates with the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and most of these inmates have had a history of solitary confinement. The relevance of this study is to show that post-traumatic stress disorder is present in inmates with a history of solitary confinement than those without.

WEEK 06- by Duprih R

Haney, Craig. Reforming Punishment: Psychological Limits to the Pains of Imprisonment. American Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, Washington, 2006, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/614207391?accountid=15182://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11382-000 

Summary: This source talks about the original cause of crime and how the attempt to prevent crime has only caused more pain in regard to the inmates incarcerated. In turn inmates are often times more and more violent and show less signs of preparing for release. Furthermore, many policies that are in place show that many with mental illness are incarcerated and don’t have the programs or groups that are needed to better prepare them for their release date. And lastly, he challenges the current state of the rules and regulations within the prison system, and he encourages those who are in the medical field to challenge the current things that effect the minds of those incarcerated.  

Medlicott, D. (1999). Surviving in the time machine. Time & Society, 8(2-3), 211-230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X99008002001 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1983161589?accountid=15182 

Summary: This source talks about the different pains and obstacles that prisoners face and how it has caused high rates of suicide/suicide attempts and with this many thing must change regardless of the fact that prison must cause change. In gaining positive change organizing suicide awareness programs is a great way to prevent this, which is a major part of the reform needed in the prisons. This is relevant to our research because in finding the answer to whether or not solitary confinement is humane, we will be able to identify through our research what is negative and what needs to improve.  

WEEK 06- by Jennifer A

Appelbaum, Kenneth L. "American Psychiatry should Join the Call to Abolish Solitary Confinement." Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 43, no. 4, 2015, pp. 406-415, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1767655938?accountid=15182.

 In Appelbaum’s article, he discusses the widespread and excessive use of solitary confinement in the United States and how it creates serious risks to the physical and mental health of all inmates. Appelbaum claims that the American academy of psychiatry has led in the effort to restrict solitary confinement for inmates with serious mental illness but has not taking same stance for other inmates. He suggests all APA, along with other organisations devoted to mental health to join in opposing the practice of prolonged solitary confinement.

O'Donnell, lan. "The Survival Secrets of Solitaries." The Psychologist, vol. 29, no. 3, 2016, pp. 184-187, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1961812292?accountid=15182.

This article examines the survival secrets of solitaries. O’Donnell expresses his difficulty to imagine a more disappointing and disempowering place than a solitary confinement cell. He discusses that mental health difficulties arise with disturbing regularity, when opportunities for meaningful engagement are stripped away. The essence of this study is to show the increase in mental health issues in inmates with a history of solitary confinement.

WEEK 07- by Duprih R

Wasserman, Gail A., and Larkin S. McReynolds. "Suicide Risk at Juvenile Justice Intake." Suicide & Life - Threatening Behavior, vol. 36, no. 2, 2006, pp. 239-49, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/224891570?accountid=15182

Summary:  This source looks at the prison system in the juvenile sector and sees what the risks are, when extended isolation is a factor and suicide is a major result. Furthermore, in analyzing the many factors to incarceration, whether it be substance abuse, eating or mental disorder suicide is extremely prevalent in youth who are convicted for a crime. This is relevant to our research because suicide is a major result of solitary confinement and being able to see how many it affects can be the determining factor to if should be banned or not. 

 Forsythe, B. (2004). Loneliness and cellular confinement in english prisons 1878-1921. British Journal of Criminology, 44(5), 759-770. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/57098400?accountid=15182 

Summary: This source aims to bring light to the history of solitary confinement and how it was viewed and what it entailed. By examining solitary confinement as a whole we are able to identify the issues and the things that can be isolated that need to be changed due to the new modern movement. 

WEEK 07- by Jennifer A

Ahalt, Cyrus, and Brie Williams. "Reforming Solitary-Confinement Policy -- Heeding a Presidential Call to Action." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 374, no. 18, 2016, pp. 1704-1706, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1787134964?accountid=15182.

In Ahalt’s article, he suggests that the U.S. health professions can work with criminal policymakers to assess the risk of health-related harm in solitary confinement. He also looked at the Norway halden prison as a model for partnership. The relevance of this article is to discuss the progressive reform of prisons.

Knowles, Jessica. ""THE SHAMEFUL WALL OF EXCLUSION" *: HOW SOLITARY CONFINEMENT FOR INMATES WITH MENTAL ILLNESS VIOLATES THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT." Washington Law Review, vol. 90, no. 2, 2015, pp. 893-942, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1712236607?accountid=15182.

This article depicts the percentage of inmates in solitary confinement who are mentally ill and how this violates the Americans with disabilities act. In Knowles’ article, she made it known that inmates with mental illness cannot be excluded from participation or be denied the benefits of programs and activities of a public entity under the Americans with Disabilities act. This article is relevant because so many inmates with mental illness are on a daily basis isolated and deprived off their rights.

WEEK 08- by Duprih R

Bartlett, A., Frater, A., & Hyde, S. (2018). "Suicide in prisons: An international study of prevalence and contributory factors": Comment. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(2), 106-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30011-7 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2007157909?accountid=15182

This article explores the many contributing factors of prison and how many inmates make it to solitary in the first place. In many cases they are bound by the drug and substance exchange within the prison walls and often times as a result find themselves in isolation. And to go even deeper many sections within any given prison are under staffed and with that they have a hard time keeping the trade numbers low and therefore, have a growing number or inmates in solitary. 

Rutter, P. A. (2010). The pains of imprisonment. Death Studies, 34(2), 186-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481180903495086 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/622152244?accountid=15182

In this article, the writers begin to sum up a book where they identify the the different aspects of suicide and how it may come into play in different inmates lives. The many things that separate the single and multiple suicide attempt inmates and how those things are important. 

WEEK 08 - by Jennifer A

Kaba, Fatos, M.A., et al. "Solitary Confinement and Risk of Self-Harm among Jail Inmates." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 104, no. 3, 2014, pp. 442-447, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1508767223?accountid=15182.

In Kaba's article, he analyses and gave a better understanding of self harm among inmates in correctional institutions. Kaba examined data from medical records on 244,699 incacerations in the New York City jail system from Jan 2010 to Jan 2013. it was discovered that 2182 of the incaceration were self harm. This article shows that after several investigation, self harm is found to be associated with being in solitary confinement. Kaba claims that because of this finding, the New York City jail system has adjusted its practices to direct inmates with mental illness who violate jail rules to a clinical setting and eliminate solitary confinement for those with serious mental illness.

Reyes, Hernán. "The Worst Scars are in the Mind: Psychological Torture."International Review of the Red Cross, vol. 89, no. 867, 2007, pp. 591-617, ProQuest, http://ezproxy.library.yorku.ca/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/217745393?accountid=15182, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1816383107001300.

This article examines solitary confinement as an example of psychological torture method. Reyes analyses torture during interrogation as a method that do not physically assault the body but yet involves severe psychological pain and suffering. This article depicts that psychological methods which do not result in ill treatment when considered in isolation, amount to torture when applied with other techniques over a long period of time. The excess of this article is to address the use of torture over a long period of time and its effects on inmates.



This article is an opinion piece published in an online newspaper.

Verenca, Tereza (2017). News Story of the Year: Kinder Morgan Pipeline. BurnabyNow. www.burnabynow.com

Verenca’s article on the never-ending debate over the controversial Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline that was approved by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau is informative and compelling and describes why the pipeline was such a news headliner for 2017. Reviewing the change in provincial government, and how British Columbia’s new NDP/Green government are strongly opposed to the progression of the pipeline in comparison to the Liberal government gives insight to how the province will do whatever it can legally (and illegally) to stop this pipeline coming to fruition. Verenca explains how even though the provincial government makes statements about doing everything it its power to stop the pipeline in its tracks, it is unclear just how much power they really have over the federal government and Prime Minister Trudeau who is very clear and strong in his will to see the pipeline succeed. This opinion piece is important to the podcast because it provides insight into the provincial and federal government that are opposed to each other’s opinions on the pipeline.


This is an informative fact sheet overview posted by Kinder Morgan online.

“Project Overview.” Trans Mountain, www.transmountain.com/project-overview.

This informative fact sheet of Texas based Kinder Morgan energy infrastructure company explains the proposed Trans Mountain pipeline that would transport oil from Edmonton to Burnaby. The proposed expansion of the pre existing pipeline would increase tanker traffic in Vancouver’s harbour from seven a month to approximately thirty four. The pipeline’s oil transport would increase significantly. The project is expected to cost 7.4 billion dollars, and employ 15,000 people. These facts, data, and statistics give our podcast a scientific approach that is believable and correct. By staying up to date on current information, we are able to give our audience a foothold for what is happening and what has happened. Using information that comes directly from the company responsible for the construction of the Trans Mountain pipeline, Kinder Morgan, appeals to the more conservative and scientific inclined audience as it proves that we are unbiased in the gathering of our information and sources, and that we are dedicated to finding the whole story.



Hoberg, George. “The Battle Over Oil Sands Access to Tidewater: A Political Risk Analysis of Pipeline Alternatives.” Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 39, No. 3, pp 371-391. 2013. University of Toronto Press.

This is a scholarly article.

This article focuses on the political aspects of pipeline construction in Canada, and the procedures that determine whether a pipeline can or cannot be built. The article informs that provincial government do not have much jurisdiction regarding pipelines, and don’t have the final say. The federal government has complete power over pipeline decisions, and although they must comply to the National Energy Board Act and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, both acts simply conduct (in the favor of the government) reviews of “public interest” and release them to the public and government of which the government then makes a “more informed” decision. The controversy of pipelines in Canada refers to the environmental risk (specifically concerning tankers in the tidewater) that it poses to our natural resources. The only way that pipelines can be reversed from the governmental approval, is by the First Nations people. Since the Aboriginal land rights play a major role in the constitution, the First Nations people can successfully take the government to court and have a good chance at winning (in comparison to the US). This has great impact on the topic of our podcast as it brings into scope the power of the First Nations people, which is what we focus on in our “Citizen” vignette. By making the connection of First Nations people and their land rights, we take away the stigma that First Nations people only hold emotional and theoretical power and that their voice can be heard but not acted upon. By specifically taking a look at our Constitution, we appeal to our intended Canadian audience. By mentioning the power that the provincial government has and the power the federal does, we can show our audience the differences between the two.


Financial Liabilities for Kinder Morgan, Living Oceans Society, 2012, books1.scholarsportal.info/viewdoc.html?id=/ebooks/ebooks0/gibson_cppc/2013-05-25/1/10681904.

This is an e-book published by an organization (no listed author).

This book assesses the financial liability for Kinder Morgan (the oil company) as they plan on going ahead with the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion. What was particularly integral to our episode was the detailed overview of the increased tanker traffic that would ensue in the event of the pipeline expansion. The book explains that currently, the Burrard Inlet off the coast of Vancouver sees about 90 trips per year of tanker traffic. After the expansion, the Inlet would see about 300. This is an increase of three fold, which significantly raises the risk of an oil spill. The Burrard Inlet is known for being home to many endangered orca whales, who would be incredibly impacted in the event of a spill and could go extinct off the Vancouver coast. Not only is an oil spill detrimental to the wildlife, and environment but the economy as well. The economic impact of an oil spill would cost some 165,000 jobs and 10.8 billion dollars. No “Oceans Protection Plan” can save that. This is detrimental to include in our podcast as it explicitly shows our audience the scale of catastrophe an oil spill would have on Canada’s west coast.


WEEK 4: 


Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982. “Part III, Rights of the Aboriginal Peoples of Canada.” Justice Laws Website, Government of Canada, Section 35 to 35.1, accessed 1 Feb. 2018, laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/Const/page-16.html.

This is a government document.

This government document outlines section 35, part III, of the Constitution Act of 1982. This act was amended by Pierre Elliot Trudeau to concrete the responsibility the government to uphold has to the land rights and treaties that were not ceded in Canada. This document is integral to our episode because it details the ways in which the government must comply with traditional First Nations land and the consequences if they don’t. This document shows the legality of First Nations land rights and how they aren’t a figurative leverage to oppose pipeline construction in Canada, but a very literal one. This document gives depth and actuality to our podcast, and shows an aspect of the Canadian legal system. Section 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 is imperative to First Nations rights, as doing anything that directly or indirectly goes against the Constitution is unacceptable. By knowing this loophole and information, we are more informed on why First Nations rights always come up when talking about environmental issues that impact the land. This is very important for the authenticity of our podcast, as it gives important context for why the conversation around the pipeline often includes First Nations peoples, and why our podcast includes conversation around First Nations peoples.


Zussman, Richard. “B.C. government strikes another blow to stop Kinder Morgan pipeline expansion.” Global News, Politics, updated 31 Jan 2018, globalnews.ca/news/3996008/bc-government-strike-another-blow-to-stop-kinder-morgan-pipeline-expansion/.

This is a news article.

GlobalNews very recently (January 30th, 2018) released an article detailing new updates concerning BC’s provincial government and the Kinder Morgan pipeline. It has been released that the government will implement a diluted bitumen (dilbit) transport restriction. The government states that since there isn’t any scientific evidence to show that diluted bitumen is as safe to transport as regular crude, there will be a restriction its transportation within British Columbia until (an independent) group of scientists can procure sufficient information stating that it can be transported safely. Diluted bitumen is unlike crude oil in one huge way: it sinks. Because it sinks, it proves to be arguably impossible to clean up in the case of a spill or leak. It would seep into clean water supply and endanger the health of many Canadians, the environment, and wildlife. This is a tremendous effort from the BC government, which has since faced much heat for being opposed to the federally approved pipeline. Many have said that the provincial government’s power is insufficient next to the federal’s, but they may be proven wrong. According to this news, the provincial government isn’t standing down to the feds, and they’re pulling out the big guns. This news update influences our podcast because it deals directly with a main power struggle featured in our vignettes: the British Columbia provincial government and the federal government. As we talk about the ways in which the federal government holds more power over the country and the fate of the pipeline than the provincial government does, this recent act of rebellion from the provincial government comes as a surprise and an important raising of the stakes.




Robson, John. “Canadians feel for Aboriginals, but our patience for too many insults has its limits” National Post, Full Comment, June 30, 2017. http://nationalpost.com/opinion/john-robson-canadians-feel-for-aboriginals-but-our-patience-for-too-many-insults-has-limits

This is an opinion article in a newspaper.


The National Post ran an opinion piece written by John Robson in its “Full Comment” section, regarding the inequalities between Aboriginal people and Canadians, but instead of focusing on the inequalities of Aboriginal peoples focusing on the inequalities of Canadians. Robson writes that the past is the past, we must move forward as a nation to truly advance for the better, and continuing to apologize, make amends, and offer compensations to Aboriginal peoples isn’t fair or correct. Robson points out that there are many groups of oppressed people in Canada who don’t receive benefits or help, and to give one group an advantage over others for something that happened over a hundred years ago isn’t relevant to our society and culture today. This is important to our podcast because it represents the voice of Canadians who don’t believe that Aboriginal people should have more power in the court of law over any other Canadian.


Slattery, Brian. "Understanding Aboriginal Rights," Canadian Bar Review vol. 66, no. 4 (December 1987): p. 727-783.

This is a scholarly article.

This article from Google Scholar describes not only the legality of Section 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982, but how it has been used in the court of law before for Aboriginal people to gain power. The Constitution is a very binding act, and is almost impossible to go up against. The Supreme Court of Canada often rules in the favour of Aboriginal peoples, as the Constitution requires them to. The article describes a case in which the Musqueam band of Vancouver reclaimed damages and collateral for misconduct from the government not upholding their treaty and land agreement. This is an example of power, and how to understand the legal system is to potentially gain power. The Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Musqueam bands favour, and the government of Canada was forced to repay the band. This article adds depth to our podcast as it shows how powerful the Constitution is, including the amendment that explicitly gives First Nations people a right to their unceded territory. As we discuss the rights and powers First Nations people have, it is important to connect it to the Constitution, as it is the binding document that specifically dictates those rights.



Ghoussoub, Michelle. "B.C. Challenges Alberta Wine Ban Under Free Trade Rules", CBC News, British Columbia. February 19.

This is an opinion piece.

This article features the recent boycott of B.C. wine from Alberta provincial government. The British Columbia NDP government  is currently challenging the boycott in reference to the Canadian Free Trade Agreement (CFTA). The actions made by Alberta's NDP leader Rachel Notley are considered to be a violation of the obligations the province owes B.C. under the CFTA, and the dispute is currently under consultation. The boycott of B.C.'s wine is a direct response to the B.C. government's recent provincial action against the Kinder Morgan pipeline construction and oil transportation. Stakes are high, and the interests are in Alberta's favour. The battle between the two province's provincial governments is integral to our episode, as it shows that perspective differs widely from province to province. The fact that both B.C. and Alberta are governed by the same provincial political party adds depth to the debate. This opinion piece shows the stakes involved in this story are high, and that there are multiple power struggles going on. By emphasizing the power struggle between the Alberta and B.C provincial governments, we effectively show our audience how being on different sides of the pipeline's construction can come between governments. 


Audette-Longo, Trish. "Jagmeet Singh Takes Same Position As John Horgan In Kinder Morgan Pipeline Dispute", National Observer, News, Energy, Politics. February 18th.

This is an opinion piece.

Jagmeet Singh, who serves as Leader of the New Democratic Party in Ontario, recently issued his support for British Columbia Leader John Horgan in his fight to oppose the construction of the Kinder Morgan pipeline. Singh says that the pipeline needs more environmental assessment, and therefore adds to the drama of the cross-country debate. As Leader Rachel Notley continues to fight fiercely for the pipeline, that is strongly in her province's interest, it is beginning to seem that it is only in her province's interest. The transportation of diluted bitumen from Edmonton to Burnaby through the Kinder Morgan pipeline is increasingly seen to be extremely dangerous, and understood to be an impending disaster. Singh adds that the federal government is to blame for the tension, saying that as Trudeau did not do his job thoroughly and ensure a proper process for analyzing the pipeline and its risks, the consequences in the form of B.C.'s resistance are just. This opinion piece shows that different politicians are criticizing Trudeau's actions, and showing their support for the B.C provincial government. By doing so, this article shows that this topic truly applies to all Canadians.




Barry N. Madison, P.V. Hodson, V.S. Langlois, "Diluted bitumen causes deformities and molecular responses indicative of oxidative stress in Japanese Medaka embryos", Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 165, 2015, Pages 222-230.

This is a scholarly article.

This article details the toxicity of diluted bitumen compared to regular crude oil. Focusing on the effects dilbit has on fish, this article hones in on the consequences of dilbit in the natural environment. The article makes references to the potential consequences dilbit will have on the human system if exposed, as more research is showing that it is extremely toxic to fish. Causing deformities in fish embryos, exposure to dilbit is proving to be dangerous. This is relevant to our episode because diluted bitumen is the type of oil intended to be transported in the Kinder Morgan expansion, and would be disastrous in the case of a spill on B.C.'s west coast. There are many kinds of fish and marine life living on the west coast, including the endangered Orca whale, who would be deeply affected by a spill. The inclusion of this article in our podcast is important as it goes into depth on marine life and the properties of dilbit specifically. By giving our audience the language surrounding the oil being transported through the pipeline, we can help them understand why dilbit is such a high risk and why it is so controversial. By exposing the true nature of dilbit, we are helping to distribute vital information to the public. 


Timoney, Kevin T, Lee, Peter, "Does The Alberta Tar Sands Industry Pollute? The Scientific Evidence", The Open Conservation Biology Journal, 2009, Volume 3, Pages 65-81.

This is a scholarly journal.

This journal analyzes the Alberta tar sands, and their environmental impact. The journal raises the issue that to date, their is no peer-reviewed, comprehensive assessments of the environmental consequences of the tar sands development. Their is immediate need for readily available scientific information concerning the Alberta tar sands development, and why the issue is not being addressed and or quieted. The oil industry and Canadian government are in question for the lack of research, as past Stephen Harper Conservative government was infamous for firing government based scientists who produced negative information and research concerning the tar sands. The tar sands remain the largest source of income for the country, and are relied on heavily in terms of economic growth and benefit. The tar sands also remain a giant scab on Canada's land mass that prove our inability to progress in a positive, clean-energy driven direction. This journal is relevant to our episode because the Kinder Morgan pipeline would run from the tar sands to B.C.'s west coast, an example of the tar sands impact on Canadian environment. 




Sheill, Leslie, Loney, Suzanne. "Global Warming Damages and Canada's Oil Sands", Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 33, No. 4, 2007, pp 419 - 440. 

This is a scholarly article from a scholarly journal. 

In this analysis of the Alberta oil sands in conjunction with climate change, the oil that is extracted from the oil sands is explained as the most environmentally damaging. The Alberta oil sands hold most of Canada's oil reserves, and are therefore receiving more attention and funding from the government because of the trade opportunities. The oil sands are considered to be economically and socially beneficial for Canada, because of the revenue they generate. This article explains that is not the case, and the cost of climate change is not being put into the equation. When considering the cost of climate change, the oil sands are not socially beneficial, because they will cost the country in damages and depletion of natural resources that we rely on. The oil sands contribute to "conventional air pollutants, land degradation, water pollution, and water scarcity". The information in this article is integral to our episode because it explicitly states the environmental impacts of the oil sands, where the oil for the Kinder Morgan pipeline is generated. It offers evidence that the oil sands are not socially beneficial, and therefore, that the Kinder Morgan pipeline is not socially beneficial. We discuss in our episode how the Kinder Morgan pipeline risks potentially outweigh the benefits, and this relates to that directly.


Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. “Treaty-Making and Betrayal: The Roots of Canada’s Aboriginal Policy.” Canada's Residential Schools: The History, Part 1, Origins to 1939: The Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Volume I, McGill-Queen's University Press, 2015, pp. 49–62. 

This is a scholarly article. 

This article explains the colonization of Canada, and the First Nations communities that resided here before colonization. Before the Britain recognized Canada as a nation instead of a colony of Britain, the First Nations were seen as Independent and were therefore entitled to their own land and language, much like the French in Québec. After 1867, when Canada became its own nation, the First Nations were not seen as Independent and were bargained with for land rights and treaties. Many of these treaties today are not upheld, have not been ceded, or have been completed void and or violated. This article explains that before the British and French colonization of Canada, the First Nations had their own democracy in place, and were not new to negotiating with one another. The system they had in place was one that operated for a millennia, and was peaceful. This article offers evidence to the perspective that if First Nations were allowed rights to their land, language, and culture within Canada, we could have operated in co-existence and to this day have a strong and healthy First Nations representation in Canada. This is important to our podcast because as we discuss First Nations land rights and treaties, it impertinent to know the background of Canadian colonization and history of how First Nations lost their land, and are now included in the Constitution. Understanding that the First Nations population is different from other racial populations in Canada is extremely important, and gives context to many opinion articles featured in our episode. We discuss in our podcast how First Nations people are entitled to many rights and freedoms regarding their land and peoples that they are not being  given currently, and this article gives more perspective to why that is.

You Are WhaTu Speak

by Ademi Yestayeva


Week 2:

1. Genesee, Fred, and Kathryn Lindholm-Leary. “Dual Language Education in Canada and the United States.” Encyclopedia of Language and Education, edited by Nancy H. Hornberger, second ed., vol. 1, New York: Springer, 2008, pp. 253–266. Scholars Portal, www.library.yorku.ca/find/Record/2286039.

The article is a peer-reviewed scholarly secondary source that provides substantial information and extensive research on the history and the essence of the phenomenon of bilingualism (English and French in Canada, and English and Spanish in United States) and the beginning of language immersion in North America in 1960s. 

The text examines the socio-economic and cultural reasons behind the necessity of bilingualism (English and French) in Canada, and the importance of a respectful relationship between English Canadians and French Canadians for a prospering and functioning society. It explores the development of bilingualism from an early stage, when French had an inferior status and was often prohibited to use. It explains the Quiet Revolution that occurred in Quebec in 1960s. This is a crucial moment for understanding the reason behind and the further development of the bilingual culture in Canada, which is the topic of my episode. It also explains the immersion program models that were first introduced back then, and the many benefits that kind of learning environment had on the students, which should encourage monolingual Canadians to express more interest in learning the other official language, and helping Canada maintain the bilingual culture that is crucial to its essence and national identity.

My initial topic was official bilingualism in Canada, and though I have shifted to the general effect that bilingualism has on people's lives, this article still fits perfectly in my script, because it provides important information on bilingualism in the 20th century, back when it was seen in a negative light, which is what my first vignette is dedicated to, as it is crucial to understanding the current condition of bilingualism. The great thing about the article is that it includes information on both Canada and the US, allowing the reader to compare the two countries, the greatness of which was built on immigration and mixing of cultures and ethnicities, and of course languages, too. 

2. Lepage, Jean-François and Jean-Pierre Corbeil. 2013. “The evolution of English–French bilingualism in Canada from 1961 to 2011.” Insights on Canadian Society, May, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-006-X.

The statistical source demonstrates the evolution of the phenomenon of bilingualism in Canada over the past 6 decades. It explicitly refers to the ability to speak both English and French in the context of Canada's culture and society as 'official bilingualism'. It shows the trends in the increase and decrease of the bilingual population, with special emphasis on the contribution of Quebec to the bilingual popultion in Canada. 

It demonstrates that despite the growth in population, the bilingual part of it has been fluctuating, without Quebec taken into account, where the process has always been steady. The statistics also provide interesting information on the ‘bilingual belt’, an area of Canada where the vast majority of the bilingual population is concentrated. It includes the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick. 

There are two reasons for the the fact that the rate of official bilingualism in Canada has dropped: English-speaking students outside of Quebec are less exposed and less interested in learning French, and there are a lot of bilingual immigrants coming into the country who don’t speak the official languages to the point where they could add to the ‘official bilingual’ population of Canada. I think these statistics would be an interesting 'fun fact' (something like 'did you know...?') to use in the episode, because I feel like this is not something you hear about in the news, or even online, unless you look specifically, and even if you do, you do not pay much attention to it. I imagine some Canadians who take pride in Canada's bilingual cultural identity but only speak English (or French), could possibly either consider learning French (English) themselves or enrolling their children/grandchildren in French (English) immersion programs in order to contribute to preserving Canada's bilingual status in the long run.

* Week 2 Bibliography entry is for my previous topic. I shifted from the bilingual situation in Canada to the way bilingualism generally shapes bilingual people's life experiences.

Week 3:

3. Jones, Tobias. “The Joys and Benefits of Bilingualism | Tobias Jones.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 20 Jan. 2018, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jan/21/the-joys-and-benefits-of-bilingualism.

The opinion piece was one of my two choices on my second topic of bilingualism. I am sticking with the first opinion piece, and using this one as a popular source. The article was written by the father of bilingual children for the renowned British newspaper The Guardian.

What I really like about the article is that even though It's evident from the title that it advocates for the benefits of bilingualism, it also mentions the downsides of it, such as immigrants experiencing xenophobia, which is often completely omitted in popular media. The opinion piece draws in the reader with the author's own experience of living in Italy as an English speaker, and includes a significant amount of information on bilingualism in terms of research, history, current social situation, statistics, and a discussion on what bilingualism essentially is. 

What especially stood out to me in the article was the fact that the school that topped the Sunday Times school league, which is a list of top schools in the UK, consists of 96% students who speak English as an additional language, which proves the claim that maintaining a native language at home is beneficial for learning the community language, contrary to the earlier existing skepticism of bilingualism. Another notable research proving the prejudice wrong comes from University of Toronto, where it was discovered that students who were literate in their native language demonstrated "CALP" (cognitive academic language proficiency) in a secondary language sooner than those without a strong native language background. The conclusion that can be drawn is that it is far more beneficial for children of immigrants to be exposed to a rich and eloquent native language at home, rather than a basic conversational English, because then they would be able to transfer their understanding of language to a different one and learn it more efficiently.

The aforementioned information is for my second vignette that presents points in favour of the "bilingual advantage" in the academic sense. Since my episode is concerned with the way being bilingual shapes people's lives in different terms and aspects, this data is a reassuring idea that explicitly supports in favour of maintaining a native language at home and raising bilingual children for it will definitely come in handy later in life. 

4. Kinzler, Katherine. “The Superior Social Skills of Bilingualism.” The New York Times, 11 Mar. 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/03/13/opinion/sunday/the-superior-social-skills-of-bilinguals.html.

This New York Times article is a popular source that draws the reader in with a bold and confident title. I believe it is a primary source as it was written by the same person who was conducting research presented in the article, an Associate Professor of Psychology and Human Development at Cornell University. 

As it turns out, apart from all the more obvious advantages of bilingualism, bilinguals appear to have better social skills. And not only bilinguals, but also monolinguals who have been frequently exposed to two or more languages spoken around them. This was proved when both bilinguals and monolinguals from multilingual environments performed similarly on a task that required to consider someone else's perspective before choosing an object. Children aged 4-6 were asked to move the small car out of the three different-sized cars in front of them (small, medium, large), but since the person asking them was not able to see the smallest car, they were most probably referring to the medium one. The reason why the children from multilingual environments performed better is rather obvious: living with a few languages, they have to consider who speaks which language, and how well they speak it, and the different settings for different languages and other nuances. This sharpens their perception of the people around them, and subsequently their social skills, too. 

The authors thoughts that maybe this was another side-effect of bilingualism that had to do with the improved cognitive functions, but when all the participants did the standard cognitive test of the executive function, bilinguals performed better than monolinguals, and even the kids from multilingual environments, concluding that the enhanced social skills stemmed from frequent and consistent multilingual exposure. I think this is really interesting as it shows that most of the effect of bilingualism lies deep and displays itself in curious ways, although not completely surprising when thought about. This article, though a popular source, provides exciting new data about bilingualism through research. It will fit just right into my second vignette, which focuses on the pros of bilingualism that initially inspired the opinion piece which in turn caused a response from me. 

Week 4:

Pitch Transcript: 

My chosen opinion piece

The opinion piece with a bold title “Why Bilinguals Are Smarter”, written by Yudhijit Bhattacharjee, and posted in the New York Times originally on March 17, 2012, was recently resurfaced from the archives to remind people of the pleasantly surprising effect of bilingualism. Bhattacharjee explains that being able to converse in more than one language isn’t just convenient in our globalized World. Speaking two languages with an analogous frequency and fluency – that is, being bilingual – has a profound effect on your brain!

The popular opinion that existed in the 20th century was that one language was a hindrance for the other. It’s true that both language systems are active even when only one is being used, but au contraire - it’s a blessing in disguise, as Bhattacharjee puts it. The two languages competing for dominance provide the mental stimulation that forces the brain to resolve the inner conflict, leading to fundamental improvement of the cognitive functions, and even postpones the onset of dementia. In other words, the bilingual brain is kind of like the muscular guy at the gym doing push-ups with one hand and his friend sitting on his back.

All of this is great news for all the bilingual and multilingual folks out there, who comprise approximately half of the World’s population, including 47% of Toronto, as reported in 2006, and the numbers are increasing due to high rates of immigration.

Now, the benefits of bilingualism that Bhattacharjee mentions are phenomenal, but it’s only natural that every coin has two sides. Bilinguals aren’t two monolinguals in one person: they tend to have smaller vocabularies in both languages than a person fluent in just one. They experience tip-of-the-tongue moments, when you can’t remember the word that you wanted to use, twice as much as their monolinguals peers, which can be embarrassing. But most importantly, they might experience difficulties with social integration – simply put, racism and xenophobia, when migrating to a different country and learning its language or languages for work, studies and communication.

How did it come to this reality where speaking a bunch of languages is becoming more and more common, as compared to the 20th century, when maintaining more than one language was prohibited and discouraged in some places? And what is the real experience of bilinguals nowadays, whether they’ve been speaking two languages since infancy, or learned a second language in an older age? Do the advantages of bilingualism outweigh the different kinds of drawbacks, be they academic or social? Let’s find out!

5. Costa, Albert, and Núria Sebastián-Gallés. “How Does the Bilingual Experience Sculpt the Brain?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 15, no. 5, 2014, pp. 336–345., doi:10.1038/nrn3709.

This peer-reviewed academic article, the authors of which are mentioned in my opinion piece, is the result of extensive research in the field of bilingualism. It investigates 3 big distinctive areas of bilingualism. The first one is focused on infants and the way they learn to distinguish two languages. Second is the neural effect that a second language has on the first language, referred to as the 'bilingual effect', in young adults who became bilingual at an older age. And the last and most important for my episode is the general effects of bilingualism on the cognitive functions of the brain outside of the language-involved area. The life-long effect of bilingualism was observed in infants, children, young adults and the elderly, both those who have been bilingual since birth and from an older age. 

There is a great amount of valuable information present in the article, but I am choosing to focus on the parts that have been mentioned in the opinion piece that I've chosen, because I think they are the most general and important as the base for the broad audience. This includes the "bilingual effect" on the executive control system of the brain, which was the main idea of my chosen opinion piece . The research in this area has only been conducted fairly recently, and it reveals that bilingualism alters the functional involvement of certain brain areas in performing various tasks. In non-linguistic tasks, bilinguals used larger portions of the left hemisphere of the brain (responsible for language control) than monolinguals. In conflict monitoring tasks they seemed to use fewer brain resources, showing less activity in anterior cingulate cortex (responsible for decision-making, emotion, impulse control). They also demonstrated a higher volume of grey matter in that area, which proves the effect of bilingualism on parts of the brain responsible for executive control processes.

All of these findings are important as they illustrate that bilingualism, indeed, affects the brain and its functionality, in some ways prompting a bilingual to perform better than their monolingual counterpart, but the authors of the article also acknowledge that none of the studies indicate that being bilingual actually makes one smarter, as compared to being monolingual, or that infants suffer more from being exposed to two languages, which is another negative notion related to bilingualism that has been around for decades. The authors express how important this awareness is socially, and that myths of these nature need to be debunked, and since I couldn't agree more, I intend on discussing this in my podcast with reference to this great article.

6. TED-Ed. "The benefits of a bilingual brain - Mia Nacamulli." Youtube.com, TED-Ed, 23 June 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMmOLN5zBLY.

The TED-Ed video lesson is a popular source based on evident academic research and compressed to bite-size chunks of information. It is very similar to the opinion piece that I chose in terms of explaining what bilingualism essentially is and what kind of advantages it has to a broad audience in a simple, engaging, and entertaining way. It encompasses almost all aspects of bilingualism and its effect that I intend to explore in my episode, except it only focuses on the positive side (advantages), and I want to include every possible perspective that would help understand the real effect of bilingualism. I regard this video as an example for my work, and I want my episode to be as informative, non-overwhelming and easy to follow. 

It is a great source for a number of reasons: 1) it starts by examining what language abilities are; 2) it introduces the general 3 types of bilinguals with a relevant example of an immigrant family (something I haven't encountered in other popular sources); 3) it mentions the relationship between the brain functions and language, and it introduces the Critical Period Hypothesis (linked to an ideal time for learning language). It also gives a background story to the previously existing prejudices of bilingualism, which is something I intend to do as well. 

But most importantly, what makes this video a much better popular source than many others out there, including my chosen opinion piece, is that while it focuses on the benefits of bilingualism, it's not as filled with propaganda, simply explaining how things work, which is what I want to do with my episode, too. It acknowledges that bilingualism does not necessarily make people smarter, though it does make the brain "healthier and more actively engaged", which is different from the idea of my chosen opinion piece and many other articles that focus on the benefits of bilingualism, as they tend to have a cheerleading tone and exaggerate the reality, giving off the impression that bilinguals are some kind of super-humans. The TED-Ed video also encourages people to learn a second language, which is the message that I want to convey somewhere towards the end of my episode. 

Week 5:

7. Bialystok, Ellen, et al. “Bilingualism: Consequences for Mind and Brain.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 16, no. 4, Apr. 2012, pp. 240–250. Scholars Portal, doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.03.001.

This peer-reviewed scholarly article is a secondary source that reflects on various research data done in the field of bilingualism to produce a comprehensible overview of the effect that bilingualism has on the mind and the brain. Interestingly, one of the authors, Dr. Ellen Bialystok, is a Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at York University, and most of her research work is dedicated to the effect of bilingualism on cognitive processes. She is one of the best specialists in the field, which can be seen as almost every popular source on bilingualism references her work. 

This article acknowledges the not so flattering effects of bilingualism supported by numerous studies and extensive research: that bilinguals have smaller vocabularies compared to monolinguals, and it takes them more time and effort to retrieve simple words even in their dominant language. However, despite scoring less on verbal fluency tasks, bilinguals demonstrated better executive control than monolinguals within similar backgrounds. Executive control is the set of cognitive skills responsible for high-level though, multitasking, and sustained memory. This is the central idea and argument of the opinion piece that I've chosen. But in this article I choose to focus on the shielding effect that bilingualism has on the brain later in life, also known as the cognitive reserve. The idea is that constantly engaging in stimulating physical and mental activities helps maintain the health of the brain and its cognitive functions, postponing the symptoms of mental health problems like dementia. Researchers, including Bialystok, tested this by looking at records of bi- and monolingual patients diagnosed with dementia. Bilinguals were diagnosed about 3-4 years later, on average at age 78.6 years, compared to monolinguals averagely at 75.4 years old, confirming that active bilingualism does contribute to cognitive reserve and has a very profound effect on the brain overall. 

I was fascinated by Dr. Bialystok's work after I first realised she was a Professor at YorkU, and I was even going to visit one of her talks in March at Ryerson, but sadly I couldn't make it there. I thought this article was the perfect candidate for my podcast as it is thoroughly explains bilingualism, and despite being so scholarly, it was easy to understand and follow. I really wanted to include information on how bilingualism postpones dementia and Alzheimer's after reading about it in the opinion piece, as I thought it was very interesting, and this article provided me with the perfect pieces of information to use.

8. Vihman, Marilyn May. “A Developmental Perspective on Code-Switching Conversations between a Pair of Bilingual Siblings.” TESOL Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, 1985, pp. 371–373. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3586837.

This short scholarly peer-reviewed article examines my personal favourite aspect of bilingualism - code-switching - in the context of an Estonian-speaking household in the United States, specifically the interactions between two equal highly proficient bilingual siblings V and R, who are also the children of the author of the paper.

The paper is the direct result of the fact that there is not much research on bilingual children engaged in natural verbal communication with their family. Although the eldest sibling, V, was often aware of being recorded, and attempted to speak Estonian more, because she thought that was expected of her, she and her sibling R still displayed natural patterns of bilinguals speaking the same languages in a natural way, which also includes code-switching, or code-mixing. Code-switching is the use of two or more languages in a sentence by bilingual (multilingual) speakers. Interestingly, the siblings most often switched nouns, and more importantly, in a manner similar to adults, suggesting that they differentiate the two languages they speak. After monitoring and irregularly recording the subjects for 4 years, the author made an interesting discovery that 61% of switches between the siblings were simple words that both of them knew well in both Estonian and English. This prompted the author to conclude that the reason the siblings code-switched was never because they were avoiding grammatically complex structures or anything of similar nature, it was merely natural behaviour stemming from the fact that the siblings identify equally as speakers of their native Estonian and English, spoken in the community around them, which is the core principle of understanding why bilinguals code-switch in the first place. 

The reason I decided to include this paper in my blog post as part of my research findings is because it explains code-switching, one of the more mysterious aspects of bilingualism, in the most simple way that I can imagine, using the example of two siblings in the habitual environment of their home. I have a feeling that some people who don't code-switch themselves might find the activity questionable and pretentious, a faulty trait to a bilingual. I understand those who don't code-switch, and those who do, too, might not understand the nature of code-switching and whether it is a good or a bad thing. I believe this paper does a great job at proving that code-switching is an innocent side-effect of bilingualism that makes things more fun, and is mostly displayed in an appropriate environment and situations, and not as a way to show off or confuse someone .

Week 6:

9. Diller, Karl C. “‘Compound’ and ‘Coordinate’ Bilingualism: A Conceptual Artifact.” WORD, vol. 26, no. 2, 16 June 2015, pp. 254–261., doi:10.1080/00437956.1970.11435596.

The TED-Ed video, cited as number 6 on this bibliography, has mentioned the notions of compound and coordinate bilinguals. This scholarly article does so, too, but offers an interesting perspective suggested by the title: the notions are artificial and rather do not actually exist in the sense that they were thought to be. These terms were originally proposed to classify the different kinds of bilinguals, but the system has many flaws, as Diller points out. He argues that these terms are: a) loosely defined; b) not proved by experimental evidence; c) contradict each other. 

Essentially compound bilinguals experience the world with a single set of concepts and simultaneously learn two languages, while coordinate bilinguals tend to learn their languages in different settings and with two sets of concepts. The problem of the loose definition can be seen in the way many linguists disagree with each other on different cases. For example, one linguist might argue that a person learning a second language outside of home after the age of 10 is always a coordinate bilingual, but in the case of a man who was raised speaking fluent Swedish and Finnish, another linguist believes the man to be a "true" bilingual, and that "true" bilinguals are coordinate. That same linguist may even argue that compound bilinguals aren't bilinguals at all. However, Diller does not completely disregard the idea that there are different types of bilinguals. He suggests that "experiental context" means more than the manner in which the language was learned. Research shows that people with similar linguistic histories respond in one way, while others with different histories respond in another.

The question that arises is whether these terms are useful at all. The way I see it, every person experiences life differently, and our vocabularies should differ correspondingly. I think this article is a great example of the idea that every bilingual person is different, based on their linguistic history, ethnic background, number of languages spoken, etc, and generalising such a diverse group of people is not a very good idea. This supports the conclusion that I am coming to in the process of research, that bilingualism is a very personal experience and can not be universally defined. It also shows that as more studies and research on bilingualism emerge, it becomes clearer that things that were previously thought to be definite are rather indefinite, and that there is still much room for development and discoveries. 

10. Cheatham, Gregory A., and Yeonsun Ellie Ro. “Young English Learners' Interlanguage as a Context for Language and Early Literacy Development.” YC Young Children, vol. 65, no. 4, 2010, pp. 18–23. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/42731074.

As the title suggests, this short academic article provides brief and concise information on the process of early literacy development in young English learners.  Written by two professors from the field of early education, it explains how children go through the crucial transitory process of second language acquisition, during which they gradually lose their home language while acquiring English, which often misleads their teachers to think that they have learning disabilities. It also suggests ways in which educators and families could cooperate to help children. 

It explains the three main aspects that are important to second language acquisition: the stages of second language development, language attrition/language loss, and code-switching. It profoundly explains "interlanguage" - the transitory grammar that children develop when they're exposed to two languages. They learn by observing the languages and developing ideas about how they work. Because this process takes time, some educators and even parents may think that the child is suffering speech delays or other language-related cognitive problems. In fact, the authors suggest that they should be more patient and supportive, and cooperate in ways that would help children learn to embrace their bilingual identity and reach their full intellectual potential.

The reason I was so excited about stumbling upon this article is because it has to do with one of the biggest stigmas of bilingualism that used to be, and still is for some, the reason why many parents avoid raising their children to be bilingual. This paper and research conducted prior to writing it prove that the earlier common notion that bilingualism hinders a child's intellectual development is wrong. It does take bilingual children more time to actually start speaking their two languages, but this article explains that it is perfectly normal, and parents just should be a little more patient. This is important for immigrants and ethnic minority children, because successful second language acquisition could either build a bridge to their bilingual identity, or alienate them and make them feel like they don't belong. 

Week 7:

11. University College London. “Adults Can Be Retrained To Learn Second Languages More Easily, Says UCL Scientist.” ScienceDaily, ScienceDaily, 15 June 2005, www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/06/050615060545.htm.

This article posted by a popular online journal dedicated to science is a brief summary of the research conducted by the scientists from University College London on the second language learning among adults. The researchers were concerned with making language learning easier for adults. Previously scientists believed that as the brain ages, it loses its plasticity, and so activities such as language learning become increasingly hard for adults. 

Studies carried out by UCL's Department of Phonetics and Linguistics proves this belief wrong - the difficulties associated with language learning among adults are not biological, and turns out, it is possible for the brain to be retrained. 63 mature native speakers of Japanese attended 10 training sessions in Japan and London, where they were taught to hear the differences between R's and L's. This is something that Japanese people find particularly hard about learning English, because these two sounds are the same phoneme in Japanese, and when English words are transcribed into Japanese, the sounds get mixed up, interfering with Japanese people's studying of English. The result was that the subjects improved their ability to distinguish the two sounds by 18% on average after only 10 sessions. This led the researchers to come to the conclusion that learning languages later in life is harder because people have been training their whole lives to perceive their first language, and it is hard to shift away from that experience. Hard, but not impossible. 

The conclusion that can be made is that although there are significant advantages to an early start, mastering a second language at an older age is possible through intensive training. This would be an encouraging message for people struggling with their language studies, and it debunks the common idea that adults who wish to learn a foreign language are doomed. I think it's important to mention this in my podcast, as many people who only speak one language fluently, but would like to learn more, are often discouraged with these harsh words that aren't even completely true. Thus they might give up and resort to admiring, and maybe even envying those who have picked up a bunch of languages while growing up, having the advantage of an early start. I believe it's wrong that most of society still clings to the idea that learning languages is an activity suitable for children and young students only, and this article is a great example that it isn't. It also proves once again that many things about bilingualism and language learning that were thought to be common knowledge turn out to be wrong, or only partially right, as more and more research is being conducted.

12. Lepage, Jean-François. “Census in Brief: Linguistic Diversity and Multilingualism in Canadian Homes .” Statistics Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics Canada, 2 Aug. 2017, www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/as-sa/98-200-x/2016010/98-200-x2016010-eng.cfm.

This statistical report on linguistic diversity and multilingualism in Canada contains information from the 2016 census provided by Statistics Canada. The census shows statistics on 215 languages spoken in Canada and demonstrates that there has been a growth in the linguistic diversity of the country.

The census provides numbers on two main groups of languages: official (English and French) and other (Aboriginal and Immigrant languages). The diversity growth refers to the fact that more people have reported a mother tongue or a language spoken at home that is neither English nor French, while the total number of languages has not grown much. The biggest growth happened with the Immigrant languages: the number of people reporting a foreign mother tongue in 2016 has increased by 910,400 people, or 13.3% from 2011.

The part of this census that I chose to focus on revolves around the metropolitan area of Toronto. I used the number of people who reported an immigrant mother tongue in the GTA and the overall population of the GTA (from the same census) as part of the hook in my episode’s intro. I think this might be something that not many know, and I believe it is an impressive number of people who contribute to the multicultural diversity of Toronto that makes it truly one of a kind.

Week 8:

13. Burnaby, Barbara. “Language Policy and Education in Canada.” Encyclopedia of Language and Education, edited by Nancy H. Hornberger, second ed., vol. 1, New York: Springer, 2008, pp. 331–341. Scholars Portal Bookshttps://www.library.yorku.ca/find/Record/2286039

This peer-reviewed academic paper is a secondary source from the same encyclopedia as the first entry on this blogpost, and similarly it is concerned with the language policy and education in Canada, although in a broader sense. It talks about policies on all major groups of languages spoken in Canada: official languages, Aboriginal languages, and official and minority languages for immigrants. 

A big portion of the article is dedicated to the history of the official languages in Canada and the struggles associated with it, as well as to how Canada came to being bilingual. The rest talks about the language policies for immigrants, both on official languages and their mother tongues, and aboriginal languages, which are treated separately from the first two groups, having been excluded by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and choosing not to be defined as a cultural minority. The main idea of the whole article is that although since Francophones have challenged the dominance of Anglophones in Canada in the 20th century and there has been progress in acknowledging the language problems (the Official languages act, Royal commission on bilingualism and biculturalism, etc), there is still much room for improvement to be made for both the official and non-official languages.

The part of the paper that I focused on was the history of the official bilingualism establishing in Canada, as well as the Quiet revolution and the establishment of the Royal commission, as these events are crucial to the evolution of bilingualism, and my first vignette consequently. I believe these historical events could be of interest to the potential Canadian audience, as well as important to understanding how bilingualism came to be the way it is today. I think it's kind of nice that Canada played a positive role in it. 

Although it may seem that this paper and the first entry on this blogpost are very similar, I used and cited both in my script, as they offer each their own perspectives and corresponding content on different aspects of the matter of language. Besides, initially the first entry was for my first topic of official bilingualism in Canada, and even though I shifted away from, I still decided to use the source a little bit to not let it go to complete waste. 

14. Hakuta, Kenji. “Bilingualism and Intelligence.” Mirror Of Language: The Debate on Bilingualism, by Kenji Hakuta, New York: Basic Books, 1986, pp. 14–44.

This book on bilingualism was written by a professor of education and linguistics at Stanford University. It initiates a broad discussion on bilingualism, explaining and debunking the myths surrounding it. 

I stumbled upon this book by accident while searching for a good source on the backstory of bilingualism and how the social notion of it evolved over the 20th century. I found all that in the second chapter of the book titled "Bilingualism and Intelligence", which is why I cited the chapter precisely instead of the whole book, in case someone would like to check it out for themselves. 

As the title suggests, the chapter discusses the literature on 'good' and 'bad' bilingualism in consideration of 'intelligence'. As it turns out, researchers in the beginning of the 20th century tried to invent tools for measuring intelligence, and judged whether bilingualism was good or bad by the performance of bilinguals. Briefly, after Alfred Binet invented the IQ test, a man named H.H. Goddard, who wasn't even a scientist of any kind, translated it into English and used it on Jewish immigrants arriving to the USA through an interpreter. Declaring 25 out of 30 adult Jews 'feeble-minded', he blamed the lack of an extensive vocabulary on the lack of intelligence. Following in his footsteps, a boom of IQ tests and studies emerged that ultimately proclaimed bilingualism to be bad. 

I decided that the origins of the negative stigma of bilingualism are very important to explaining how it came to the day the opinion piece that I've chosen was written, because both perspectives are like heaven and earth, and knowing what came first helps understand the rest better. I really enjoyed reading the book, as it is informative but accessible, and I learned a lot of interesting things. I am glad I stumbled upon it, and it readily provided me with everything I was looking for about the history of bilingualism. 

Kinder Morgan Pipeline



Lukacs, Martin. “Indigenous rights 'serious obstacle' to Kinder Morgan pipeline, report says.” The Guardian, 16 Oct 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/true-north/2017/oct/16/indigenous-rights-serious-obstacle-to-kinder-morgan-pipeline-report-says.

This is a secondary source, as it is an online newspaper article pulling from other sources. It is a popular source, since it is a newspaper article, and therefore not peer-reviewed or governmentally approved. The construction of the Kinder Morgan Pipeline will be seriously opposed by First Nations groups, and the opposition will be effective due to the ownership of the land by the Secwepemc people. Though the original pipeline was built in 1951 because indigenous people were not allowed to organize legal action at the time, in 2017 the legality of the situation must be considered and can be questioned. Kinder Morgan, as a company, has not considered the rights of indigenous people, possible legal action against Kinder Morgan, or the ways that protests and activism will affect the pipeline’s construction. As such, their promises to financial backers have been delayed or falling through—backers were not properly and accurately informed of the situation. The Canadian federal government supports the pipeline, but the British Columbia provincial government opposes it.


“How the Kinder Morgan pipeline could impact Pacific salmon.” The Weather Network, 20 Jan 2018, https://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/pacific-salmon-kinder-morgan-pipeline-oil-transport-british-columbia-canada/94062.

This is a secondary source, as it is an online article discussing information from other sources. It is a popular source, not peer-reviewed or governmentally approved. The Kinder Morgan Pipeline is set to cross many rivers, which is a potential danger to the animals living in that river, including Pacific salmon. The amount of sockeye salmon returning to spawn in the Fraser River, a main waterway the pipeline will cross, has decreased in recent years, and a pipeline spill is a threat to them. The effects of the crude oil the pipeline will carry, diluted bitumen (also called Dilbit) on sockeye salmon are being studied in laboratories. It has been discovered that exposure to Dilbit damages juvenile sockeye salmon’s heart tissue, making it more difficult to swim. Repeated exposure to Dilbit from leaks or spills would damage fish to the extent that they may not be able to return to the ocean. However, with low exposure and quick removal of the Dilbit, the salmon in the lab were not affected, so quick cleanup times could prevent the salmon in the wild from being damaged.



Bakx, Kyle and Johnson, Tracy. “What B.C. can and cannot do to stop the Kinder Morgan pipeline.” CBC, 31 May 2017, http://www.cbc.ca/news/business/tmx-kinder-morgan-horgan-bc-oilpatch-1.4137925.

This is a popular secondary source. Kinder Morgan is determined to see their pipeline through, as is the Albertan Premier, Rachel Notley. The federal government has approved this pipeline, and it would be extremely difficult to revoke that permission. However, the provincial government of British Columbia, opposed to the pipeline, can delay or impede its construction by denying the permits needed for construction, including ones for road access and using heavy equipment. Another way to impede the pipeline’s construction would be to order another environmental assessment, which, if it fails, would be grounds for the BC government to declare that Kinder Morgan has not met the conditions included in that environmental certificate and so there are times when the province must give its consent to pipeline-related activities. Historical court cases related to pipeline construction give a mixed precedent for fighting its construction. The pipeline is under federal jurisdiction, but one case ended with the pipeline stopped, the court ruling that the provincial government must do its own work, involving local First Nations bands and landowners and their own environmental assessment, instead of relying on the federal government for legal action with projects of this type.


McSheffrey, Elizabeth. “B.C. government takes first swing at stopping Kinder Morgan.” Observer Media Group, 10 Aug 2017, https://www.nationalobserver.com/2017/08/10/news/bc-government-takes-first-swing-stopping-kinder-morgan.

This is a popular secondary source. The British Columbian provincial government is standing firm against this expansion of the oil industry for environmental and economic reasons. Kinder Morgan has made a statement declaring their intention to work with the province and its Aboriginal peoples to acquire the permits necessary for construction. Kinder Morgan’s construction has been blocked due to their environmental management plans not meeting standards, including consultation with First Nations. The BC government has plans to provide jobs in infrastructure and the tourist and marine harvest industries, to make up for the jobs that would be provided by the pipeline. The risk of the pipeline and an oil spill is both and economic and environmental risk that BC does not want to endure. Environmental advocates are pleased with the message that BC’s opposition sends and believe that this will be the start of a long battle to get the pipeline approved.



Fish and Wildlife Branch: Ministry of Environment. “What is the Role of First Nations in Sustainable Wildlife Management?”, THE WILDLIFE ACT: MANAGING FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY DISCUSSION PAPER, Government of British Columbia, Mar 2007, http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/fw/wildlifeactreview/discussion/discussionpaper_wildlifeact.pdf.

This is a governmental secondary online source. It discusses the role of the First Nations peoples in managing wildlife in a sustainable manner in accordance with the Wildlife Act while still respecting the traditional hunting/fishing rights of the First Nations and the cultural significance of hunting/fishing. Under the Wildlife Act, First Nations people who are registered as Indians under the Indian Act are allowed to, without a licence, trap fur-bearing animals, hunt wildlife, angle, and hunt animals on private land with the owner’s permission or on Crown land with the Crown’s permission. First Nations hunting, trapping, and fishing for food, ceremonial, and social purposes takes priority over non-First Nations use off wildlife. Efforts are being made to clarify communication of where First Nations hunters can hunt, due to differing interpretations of the limits of these hunting rights. There is also the matter of the lack of reporting the exact numbers of wildlife harvest, so the Ministry has to estimate the numbers to lay out restrictions on wildlife hunting for that time. Cooperation and further discussion would lead to better wildlife management.


Zussman, Richard. “B.C. government strikes another blow to stop Kinder Morgan pipeline.” Global News, 30 Jan 2018, https://globalnews.ca/news/3996008/bc-government-strike-another-blow-to-stop-kinder-morgan-pipeline-expansion/.

This is a secondary popular source. The British Columbian provincial government has recently announced their plan to put a limit on the amount of diluted bitumen allowed to be transported through pipelines or by rail. The Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline is meant to transport diluted bitumen, so this limit means that the pipeline would not be able to carry diluted bitumen. The government is starting a scientific panel to write a report about BC’s capabilities to clean up an oil spill. It has not yet been decided how the limit on diluted bitumen will be enforced. The BC Green Party and environmental advocates are very pleased with this announcement. However, Alberta’s Premier Rachel Notley is opposed to the idea and the possibility of losing thousands of potential jobs because of the BC government “playing political games” to delay the pipeline.





The Canadian Press, “Trans Mountain pipeline protest in Coquitlam, B.C., sees 2 arrested.” CBC, 8 Feb 2018, http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/trans-mountain-kinder-morgan-protest-1.4527557.

This is a secondary popular source. Two people were arrested after a peaceful protest against the Trans Mountain Kinder Morgan pipeline in Coquitlam, BC. The protestors, nine in total, blocked highway traffic and construction equipment. The arrested protestors were a 23-year-old man, who was arrested but later released with no charges against him, and a 22-year-old woman who chained herself to a piece of equipment, who potentially faces a charge of mischief.


The Canadian Press, “Activists protest Trans Mountain outside Trudeau’s hotel in San Francisco.” CBC, 9 Feb 2018, http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/trans-mountain-protest-california-1.4528947.

This is a secondary popular source. Climate change activists were protesting with signs and slogans outside Justin Trudeau’s hotel in San Francisco on February 9, 2018, during his meeting with California governor Jerry Brown. Three protestors got inside the hotel and protested directly outside the room where the politicians were meeting. Justin Trudeau still insists that the pipeline is what is best for Canada and that it will be built. Amanda Butterworth, a climate change activist and one of the protestors, says that Trudeau will have to back down on his approval of the pipeline is he wants to be a “true climate leader”.



“Pipeline transportation of oil and other liquid petroleum products, November 2017”, Statistics Canada, 19 Jan 2018, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/180119/dq180119d-eng.htm.

This is a statistical governmental source. This is a recent report detailing statistics of oil transport. Pipelines received 21 400 000 m3 of Canadian crude oil from Canadian oil fields and plants in November, mostly from Alberta. 13 400 000 m3 of crude oil were exported through Canadian pipelines. At the end of the month, Canadian pipelines still held 12 300 000 m3 of crude oil, the same as in November of 2016.


Tindall, David B., and Joanna L. Robinson. “Collective Action to Save the Ancient Temperate Rainforest: Social Networks and Environmental Activism in Clayoquot Sound.” Ecology and Society, vol. 22, no. 1, 2017. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26270088.

This is a peer-reviewed academic journal article, meaning it is a scholarly source. The mobilization of environmental activists in 1993 to protect the rainforests of Clayoquot Sound was the most visible in Canada’s history. This study concludes that social networks are more important that personal values in getting people to consistently participate in activism. Collective identity by being part of a movement also has much to do with ongoing activism. Many major participants in the Clayoquot protests have also joined the fight against pipeline expansions in North America, including the Northern Gateway Pipeline and the Trans Mountain pipeline, in an effort to fight against climate change. The Clayoquot protests were the beginning of a strong environmental activism in British Columbia, promoting inclusion of Aboriginal groups in such activism and policies affecting environmental decisions, and furthered the suggestion that connection within activist networks affects future activism, as social networks are formed and clout is gained through activist efforts.




Hoberg, George. “The Battle Over Oil Sands Access to Tidewater: A Political Risk Analysis of Pipeline Alternatives.” Canadian Public Policy / Analyse De Politiques, vol. 39, no. 3, 2013, pp. 371–391. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23594717.

This source is a scholarly one, an article from an academic journal. Commercial access to Canada’s oil sands has become increasingly opposed since proposals for new pipelines have become more and more controversial. Veto points (a place where an authority can block the approval of a pipeline) for pipeline approval in Canada exist within the government, trade partnerships, and the law. The influence and actions that entities with a stake in the matter can have and make depends on the structure of the policy itself, and at what level the impact is made. This article argues that political risk can be seen as a function of five variables: the number of institutional veto points, whether opposing groups can access veto points, whether the project can take advantage of current infrastructure, the prominence of localized and widespread environmental risk, and the legal separation of risks and benefits. Because the oil sands are landlocked, Alberta (the largest proponent of the use of the oil sands for the economic benefit to the province and its people) needs cooperation from other groups to use them. The political risk arising from that is decided by the rules of the institution and the structure of the policy problem. The discussion of access to the oil sands and the politics and structures surrounding that relates to the battle over the Kinder Morgan pipeline and the power structures involved in its potential construction.


Chang, Stephanie E., et al. “Consequences of Oil Spills: a Review and Framework for Informing Planning.” Ecology and Society, vol. 19, no. 2, 2014. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/26269587.

This is an academic journal article, so it is a scholarly source. This article examines and breaks down the consequences of an oil spill from oil tankers and factors affecting an oil spill—there is a case study in the area of Vancouver, which is very topical as oil would be tanked out around Vancouver from the Kinder Morgan pipeline.

The consequences of oil spill are affected by the amount of oil spilled, the toxicity of the oil (different chemical makeups can be more or less harmful to different species), the duration of the spill, the depth the spill occurs at (which affects different species of plants and animals), the location of the spill (nearshore or offshore) and the overall extent of the oil spill. The disaster management response directly influences how severe the spill will be—sometimes the cleanup techniques can be more damaging than leaving the spill alone. Additionally, the physicality of the marine environment itself affects how long the oil will remain and how much it spreads.

Oil spills can impact human health and society. The health part is impacted through physical harm caused by the oil spill—eating seafood with bioaccumulated oil toxins, inhalation of crude oil, possible long-term health effects from volatile organic compounds used in oil transport, and psychological stress (over the impact to jobs, the environment, the influx of strangers for cleanup jobs, uneven promotions and other events that upset social hierarchies). This kind of social, psychological, and physical stress has a negative impact on community structure and economic activity.

Economic activity would be impacted from more demand on health services (from previously described needs), social instability, paying for cleanup and disaster management, the decline in revenue from the tourism industry, decline in revenue from fisheries and the aquaculture industry, and other sea- or port-based businesses and industries would suffer from the effects of an oil spill.

All of this outlines the consequences of an oil spill and what affects that, which is necessary for understanding the risks—environmental, social, and economic—that a spill from the Kinder Morgan pipeline poses.



Should Abortion be Illegal?


Paperny, M. Anna. “Where in Canada Can You Get an Abortion? It’s secret – for security reasons”. Global News. 9 December, 2015. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/2351133/where-in-canada-can-you-get-an-abortion-its-secret-for-security-reasons/


Anna Mehier Paperny discusses the secrecy of abortion and the hardships Doctors face when they are the ones partaking in the procedure. Several doctors who work at women’s clinics are targets and are constantly threatened by those who are against abortions. The conditions in Canada are comparatively much safer, however women and practitioners who speak out about abortions are threatened. Although there are several clinics that are abortion providers, the advertisement of that procedure can bring danger to the hospital or    the clinic. Paperny, also interviews females who have gone through then procedure and the difficulties they face. She also briefly touches on women’s rights, and the entitlement they have to their bodies.


Russel, Andrew. “6 in 10 Canadians Support Abortions Under Any Circumstances: lpsos poll”. Global News. 23 February, 2016. Retrieved from: https://globalnews.ca/news/2535846/6-in-10-canadians-support-abortion-under-any-circumstances-ipsos-poll/


Andrew Russel discusses the new LPSOS poll, which shows that 6 out of 10 Canadians are in favour of abortions, and argue that it is a women’s right to make the decision. Russel also touches on the access of abortions clinics, and organizations that are available to females in those positions in Canada. There is also an issue of the safety of those who are involved in such organizations. The article also lists the world’s most permissive nations on abortion amongst Canada. Finally, Russel, discusses the implications that do come with the legalization of abortions, and the stigma attached to it.

Ivory Trade (2)

Victoria Bicknell




Annotated Bibliographies

Week 2

Redmond, Ian. “The Ivory Trade Isn’t Just a Disaster for Elephants. It Threatens Our Future Too.” The Guardian, 12 Aug. 2016.

Redmonds article published in The Guardian discusses the dangers of not having any elephants left, not only because of the fact that we, humans, find them beautiful, intimidating and impressive. Their love and affection for their young, and other members of their herd strikes an emotional chord in us, but because of their importance to the ecosystem. Every creature has been made for a purpose, whether big or small and no matter how small the part they may seem to play, in the end, it is a major role in keeping our earth healthy. This article illuminates the importance of these elephants, and why this role of theirs is so vital to our health and future.

Bale, Rachael. “China Shuts Down Its Legal Ivory Trade.” National Geographic, 30 Dec. 2017, news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/12/wildlife-watch-china-ivory-ban-goes-into-effect/

Bale’s article published December 30th, 2017 discusses the extent of which the elephants are damaged by the legal and illegal ivory trade and discusses how the United States and China have come together and are trying to preserve the elephants. With the Ivory ban in the US, it’s helping to minimize the importing of ivory, and decreasing the value but with China continuing to be a major player in the ivory trade, it makes it difficult to stop it completely.  The article supports the campaign to educate people of the horror behind ivory and allowing everyone to acknowledge the law. With this new step made by the Chinese government to completely eradicate the legal ivory trade, and help with the preservation of elephants, hopefully for years to come.

Week 3


Carrington, Damien “African Elephants ‘killed faster than they are being born’” The Guardian, March 3rd, 2016.

With an elephants gestation being 22 months and poachers becoming more aggressive, to the point of “shooting down a helicopter and killing the pilot in Tanzania” elephants are being killed faster than they are born. Carrington’s article was written in 2016 and two years later it is still relevant because the discussion on the ivory ban has not come to a conclusion yet. It is still one of the top most lucrative crimes according to the article. With the loss of elephants and the demand for ivory being raised, the trade is “fueling conflicts, corruption and undermining poverty relief efforts” and poaching made up 75% of the elephant deaths in 2011.



Davidson, Nicola “Cultural history or cruel complicity? Why ivory antiques are controversial” CNN, April 13th, 2017

The ivory trade has been around for many generations, and carving of ivory has been around just as long creating a history that has been sculpted in the tusks of these endangered animals. The ivory trade being the leading cause of elephant deaths, certain countries are forced to revisit their laws and this includes what to do with the antiques. Davidson’s article discusses what are the possible actions that can be taken with the historical artefacts made of ivory, and the toll these actions may take on the ivory trade.

Week 4

Wittemyer, George, et al. “Illegal Killing for Ivory Drives Global Decline in African Elephants.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 36, 2014, pp. 13117–13121. JSTOR

Wittemyer’s peer-reviewed article discusses the alarming rate of which the illegal wildlife trade is being executed. Poachers search for ‘commercially valuable species’ like the elephants that hold ivory. This article discusses the difficulty in which it is to track the natural causes of death for the wild elephants, or the illegal harvesting of them. With the data collected they discovered the killings increased after 2008 and was linked with the local black market ivory price and the confiscation of ivory being greater than usual. This leads us to believe that simply confiscating the ivory is not good enough, and the poaching must be stopped at the source. Educating the people of the dangers the elephant population is currently facing is an important step.

LaFontaine, Peter, et al. “Treasured to Death: Elephants, Ivory, and the Resurgence of a Crisis.” Natural Resources & Environment, vol. 29, no. 1, 2014, pp. 31–38. JSTOR

LaFountaine’s article discusses how poaching can lead to a threat to international security. They discuss the laws surrounding the ivory trade, they are conflicting and it’s easy to find loopholes in the regulations, allowing the poachers to easily able to launder and sell any newly poached ivory. The article shares that in the 1970’s and 80’s the international community put a hold on the ivory trade, in hopes to give the elephants a chance to bounce back, and the laws worked. The demand for ivory fell along with the prices, but because of loopholes left, the market surged once again shortly after.  Now with the resurgence of the poaching, the poachers and those who affiliated with the black market have become even more aggressive and dangerous leading to compromised security.

Week 5

May, Tiffany. “Hong Kong Moves to Ban All Ivory Sales, Closing a Loophole.” 31 Jan. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/01/31/world/asia/hong-kong-elephant-ivory.html?rref=collection/timestopic/Ivory.

Hong Kong’s legislature voted to have all ivory sales banned by 2021 and closing off a major loophole that made it easy for poachers to trade the freshly poached ivory. Ivory has been banned by most of the world since 1990, Hong Kong and a small handful of other countries did not agree to ban the ivory trade. The sale of ivory antiques from before the 1970’s was still legal and so the traders were still functioning. Though there are still people who argue that the trade should be preserved because of the historical and artistic significance that is especially important for those artisans who have been carving ivory for years. With the partial ban set up earlier in December, the price of raw ivory fell by 65 percent which shows how the total ban will help with the elephant population.

Searcey, Dionne. “Ivory Coast Arrests Six in Ring That Smuggled Parts of Elephants, Leopards and Pangolins.” 25 Jan. 2018, www.nytimes.com/2018/01/25/world/africa/ivory-coast-elephants-leopards-pangolins-smuggling.html?rref=collection/timestopic/Ivory.

The Ivory Coast broke up an international ivory-smuggling network that not only carried a half ton of ivory but pangolin scales (the highest trafficked animal in the world) and leopard skins among other animal parts. The people who were arrested are also believed to be involved with human trafficking and money laundering. Though this is not the first bust on the traders, there was an earlier one that same month. The smugglers used hollowed logs filled with the ivory and resealed glue to hide it from guards and allowed for easy smuggling. With China’s ban on commercial ivory implemented at the end of last year, it has allowed the guards to seize large amounts of ivory and many other animal parts in the last year.


Press, The Associated. “'A Giant of Conservation': Top Investigator of Ivory Trade Killed in Kenya.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 5 Feb. 2018, www.cbc.ca/news/world/us-investigator-ivory-rhino-horn-trade-killed-kenya-1.4519952.

Esmond Bradley Martin, an American conservationist who helped with ivory investigations,  was found stabbed to death in his Nairobi home. He plotted against poachers and traders by sometimes going undercover and getting information on them. He did this for many years and even had a partner, Lucy Vigne. They noted that there was a drop in price for ivory in China shortly after it was banned at the beginning of this year. He was a major part in proving that the rhino population was dwindling and he would gather the numbers to prove to the nations that the poaching was taking a toll on the rhinos and elephants. Officials are claiming that his murder so far has little or no connection to his line of work.

Mushegian, Sasha. “Appalled by the Illegal Trade in Elephant Ivory, a Biologist Decided to Make His Own.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 10 May 2017, www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/faking-elephant-ivory-180963226/.

A biologist by the name of Fritz Vollrath was horrified by the length of which people would go for ivory and the damage the trade is causing for the ivory-bearing creatures. Hence, he decided to try to create a false ivory, like synthetic furs, to substitute the real ivory but save the once bountiful animals. He is studying the form of it, trying to understand how the substance is so sturdy. Once he can understand the structure of ivory, he can continue with the fabrication of the fake ivory. With the nations coming together to ban the ivory trade, he believes his ‘ivory’ can be used in a biomedical practice. Along with that, the artisans could transfer their skills onto this alternative to keep the craft alive without using real ivory. Unfortunately, it’s difficult to recreate natural materials is not easy and so this could take a while to fully complete.


Wasser, Samuel K., Bill Clark, and Cathy Laurie. "The ivory trail." Scientific American 301.1 (2009): 68-77.

In this peer-reviewed article, they discuss the history and the possible future of the ivory trade. They discuss the outcomes of the poaching ban in 1989 that created a poaching lull for a short amount of time, and how the government officials are able to track the ivory (so whether it’s new or old) by tracking the DNA. With this technique, it allows investigators to track where the ivory was poached, to begin with, whereas before a shipment could be taken from one country and sold in another. This is very important to know because it allows the government to put stronger enforcements around where the animals are being poached and to step in where it is needed. This article is also important because they discuss how the ban in 1989 affected the poaching, and in turn, created a short lull illustrating that a full ban would be beneficial.

Andrew M. Lemieux, Ronald V. Clarke; The International Ban on Ivory Sales and its Effects on Elephant Poaching in Africa, The British Journal of Criminology, Volume 49, Issue 4, 1 July 2009, Pages 451–471, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azp030

Lemieux’s peer-reviewed article discusses the ban that was implemented in 1989 and the effects of it on the elephant population. He argues that the ban may not have been as successful as believed because of inconsistencies and the strenuous task of gathering data. After Lemieux collects data, he continues to say that the ban had succeeded in protecting the elephants though only in certain regions as certain countries where there is easier access to ‘unregulated’ markets that possibly correlate with corruption and war. This is important to note because not only is the ivory ban an issue towards the ivory-bearing animals, but it also concerns the security of the countries in which the poaching was still heavily prominent.


Video Games Causing Violence

By Mason Choffe

Scutti, Susan. “Do Video Games Lead to Violence?” CNN, Cable News Network, 26 July 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/07/25/health/video-games-and-violence/index.html.

Scutti published this article to CNN, in response to the shooting in Munich on July 22, 2016. In the shooting, an 18-year old man killed 9 people at a concert, and upon further investigation, it was revealed that he was a fan of first-person shooter video games. Obviously, this lead to discussion about a possible link between violent and mature video games making people become murderous or homicidal later in life. A study showed that over 90% of children in the United States play video games, with 85% containing violence. Despite the warnings that violent media would lead to aggressive thoughts and behaviour, studies by Prof. Whitney DeCamp showed that violent video games did not predict violent behaviour, and actually helped young males have a cathartic reaction to releasing their aggression, and kept males off the streets and out of trouble. 

Ferguson, Christopher J. “Video Games Don't Make Kids Violent.” Time, Time, 7 Dec. 2011, ideas.time.com/2011/12/07/video-games-dont-make-kids-violent/.

Ferguson's article was published to Time on December 7, 2011. This article talks about whether or not violent video games make kids violent. It asks the question of why people haven't been more concerned about the idea that all of these video games could lead to aggressive behaviour and school shootings like Columbine or Sandy Hook. The answer to that is, the fact that while sales of video games have increased dramatically, violence in youth has decreased more than it has in 40 years. The U.S. Supreme Court recognized that studies into seeing wether or not video games cause violence have been rejected in cases. Other studies, including Ferguson's own, showed that gamers were more frustrated by the fact that they weren't allowed to play the game for long, and were shown to be much more calm when they completed the game, and allowed them to relax. The article goes on to say that gaming should be enjoyed in moderation, and teaches children to distinguish between reality and fantasy, and lets their brains react differently to aggression.

The Truth About DiaMEATes.

Episode Pitch 

Transcript : 

       Have you ever heard of the Paleo, Atkins or Ketogenic diet? Those diets are all high in protein, low in carbs and are intended to help you lose weight and better your health. But what if I told you that wasn't the case? What if I told you that those diets actually do more harm than good?

     This whole idea came to me when I heard my dad talking to his friend who was in pre-diabetes explaining to them, by eating a high protein diet it can actually help them reverse the effects of diabetes. Now, I knew that I had to do more research on this in order to "Humbly" prove him wrong, but where would I start? Well, I started by watching this documentary called "What the health" and it explained all the topics I was curious about. I then researched about articles that were based on this documentary and I actually found one called "Sugar does not cause diabetes". Did the film what the health get it right?

       This article is written by Joel Kahn who is a professor of cardiology. He first goes on to explain that type one diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which a person can't produce insulin therefore not being able to process the sugar needed. So this usually isn't a dietary disease, it's usually based on genetics and people who have type 1 diabetes can't help it, they're usually predisposed to it (Kahn 3). Now, type 2 diabetes is totally caused by dietary and what you are consuming and putting into your body. But, everyone seems to believe that sugar is the main culprit of type 2 diabetes, if you consume a lot of sugar then you're gonna get diabetes. But, I'm here to tell you that, that is not the case.

       Actually, Diets that are rich in fat raise your blood sugar more than sugar-rich diets. Nearly 100 years ago healthy volunteers were fed diets rich in fat and rich in carbs and the people who were eating fat-rich diets their blood sugar skyrocketed to twice the amount than initially recorded (Kahn 6). This podcast is intended to open your eyes about the truth about type 2 diabetes and its correlation with meat. It is much easier to learn about how to prevent than how to take care of. My name is Riana Caggianiello, and this is The Truth About DiaMEATes... Pun absolutely intended.

Kahn, Joel. “"Sugar Does Not Cause Diabetes": Did the Film What the Health Get it Right?” Thrive Global, Thrive Global, 8 Aug. 2017,    journal.thriveglobal.com/sugar-does-not-cause-diabetes-did-the-film-what-the-health-get-it-right-3ef441045c01.


Annotated Bibliographies 

Cohut, Maria. “High meat intake increases diabetes risk, study shows.” Medical News Today,   MediLexicon International,  6 Sept. 2017.   

       This source is about the risk factors eating meat has on your health. More importantly, how red meat increases your risk for diabetes. eating red meat, raises a persons diabetes risk by 23 percent, and even poultry, which is considered to be "healthy" raises the risk by 15 percent. This source is relevant to my topic because I want to discuss how the beliefs that sugar causes diabetes are in fact false. It is a common misconception and a dangerous one because adults eat meat, thinking it is doing them good, when in reality, it is raising their cholesterol and putting them at risk for many diseases. I think this article will help people understand that their knowledge to what they are consuming may be wrong. 


Shaw, Jonathan. “A Diabetes Link to Meat.” Harvard Magazine, 3 Mar. 2014.

     This source is based on the research from Harvard and is further diving into the side effects of eating meat and how it not only increases your risks of heart disease, but diabetes as well. It explains how red meat is harmful and why is causes the increase in diabetes. a lot of the compounds in Red meat are known to create an insulin resistance, thus creating a body that can no longer process sugar. This article is important to my topic because very few people know why meat is not a health food. The research done in this piece is very extensive and greatly helps my case when trying to convince people that sugar is not the sole cause of diabetes. 


Song, Yiqing, et al. "A prospective study of red meat consumption and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly women." Diabetes care 27.9 (2004): 2108-2115.

     This article is intended to asses the relationship between the consumption of red meat and diabetes, more specifically, Type 2. The article is surrounded by woman between middle aged and elderly and discusses the statistics that were found when assessing their meat intake and their risk of getting Type 2 diabetes. This article is essential for my podcast because is give the statistics of woman when eating red meat and how the risk of diabetes increases the more meat consumed. People need to see stats in order to believe what they are reading. We cannot as intelligent human beings, trust a source that has no proof of what they are talking about. This will help me prove to my audience that there is in fact a correlation between diabetes and meat. 


Van Dam, Rob M., et al. "Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men." Diabetes care 25.3 (2002): 417-424.

     Like the article above this one, this article revolves around the relation between meat consumption and diabetes in men. The conclusion form this article is that is was shown, men who intake more processed meat are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. This article will give me a broader sense of statistics and will help me prove to not just women but men that there is a risk factor in eating meat. I want my podcast to reach out to everyone because Type 2 diabetes is a disease that can affect anyone and it is important for people to know the risks and how to prevent it.


Snowdon, David A., and Roland L. Phillips. "Does a vegetarian diet reduce the occurrence of diabetes?." American Journal of Public Health 75.5 (1985): 507-512.

     This source examines the vegetarianism lifestyle and how it can decrease your risk of type 2 diabetes. It explains how the risk of diabetes is an underlying cause of death and how the chances of getting diabetes was significantly lower in vegetarians than in non-vegetarians. This source is going to benefit my podcast because I, myself am a vegetarian and although I am not forcing a particular diet on someone else, I want to give them options if so needed. People who may have type 2 diabetes in their genetics, or are already in pre-diabetes should have options as to what they should do and why they should do it. I just want to make clear that I am in no way forcing vegetarianism or veganism on my audience, I simple just want them to feel informed. 


Erber, Eva, et al. "Dietary patterns and risk for diabetes: the multiethnic cohort." Diabetes Care 33.3 (2010): 532-538. 

     This source is from the American Diabetes Association and reviews the correlation of Diets and the risk of diabetes. They reviewed the dietary patterns of "fat and meat," "vegetables," and fruit and milk." It then comes to the conclusion that fat and meat was the most significant associated diet with type 2 diabetes.  This source is important to include because it can help me explain to the viewers that although different diets can be associated with diabetes, and meat is not the only food to blame, it has a significant effect on people who consume it regularly. This source creates a different perspective and delves in to diets other than a high protein diet or a high sugar one. 


Jiang, Rui, et al. "Dietary iron intake and blood donations in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men: a prospective cohort study." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79.1 (2004): 70-75.

     This source researches the correlation between iron and diabetes. It also focuses on blood donations and the iron incident. The study examines patients through a 12 year span and came to the conclusion that there were no relations between the two matters. I chose this article because even though there was no proven case, I decided to use it as a way to keep my podcast unbiased and broaden my range of knowledge. However the heme-iron intake is positively associated with type 2 diabetes.  Even with the previous study there was still evidence of an association between higher heme- iron levels and a higher risk of diabetes. 


Kim, Yoona, Jennifer Keogh, and Peter Clifton. "A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus." Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental 64.7 (2015): 768-779.

     This source is beneficial to my podcast because it examines the resistance to insulin that comes with a higher intake of red meat. Type 2 diabetes is an insulin resistance and your body can no longer make the insulin needed to moderate a persons blood sugar. this article explains how consuming red meat can lead to insulin resistance and what factors go into it. I am using this source in order to show people what exactly diabetes is because the more they understand the disease and how common and easy it actually is to get it if you don't take care of yourself, they will be more inclined to educate themselves and learn how to prevent. I believe that preventing is easier than learning to live with this disease, especially when it can be avoided. 


“Diabetes.” Canada.ca, 20 Jan. 2012, www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/health-concerns/diseases-conditions/diabetes.html.

       This source is a government source from government Canada. The source goes into detail about what diabetes is and the different types of diabetes. It explains type one diabetes, type 2 diabetes (which is what my podcast is about) and gestational diabetes. This source is very important for my podcast because in order for people to actually care about the affects red meat has and its links to type 2 diabetes, one has to know what diabetes actually is. Diabetes is a real disease and no one is immune to it. However everyone can prevent but you cant prevent a disease you know nothing about.  



Jill DaviesHelen Lightowler, (1998) "Plant‐based alternatives to meat", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 98 Issue: 2, pp.90-94, https://doi.org/10.1108/00346659810201050

       This source states the alternatives to eating meat. Many people assume that meat gives you nutrients you cant get sufficiently anywhere else. This article tells readers that there are many plant based alternatives where you can get the same nutrients. The biggest concern with not eating meat is not getting enough protein, but the fact of the matter is, a person can get protein in many other foods. The article gives the reader different options such as  soya beans; wheat protein; pea and wheat protein; and myco‐protein. The reason why I am including this article in my podcast is because I want my listeners to understand that there are many different alternatives and just because its not meat doesn't mean its not packed with nutrients, more specifically, protein. One should not feel confused when trying to transition from solely a meat based diet to a diet with less meat but the same amount of nutrients and much more beneficial to their long term health. 


Liu, Gang, et al. "Meat Cooking Methods and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Prospective Cohort Studies." Diabetes care (2018): dc171992.

       This source examines the correlation between the way meat is being cooked and the risk of type 2 diabetes. This study followed men and women who were free of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer at the beginning and compared the different ways they cooked their meat, wether that was by an open flame and/or high temperature cooking. They also compared the way it was consumed, wether that be rare, medium or well done.  At the end of this study they would examine if there were increased health risks in the people that consumed animal flesh at least two times a week. The reason why I am including this source in my podcast is because I want to inform people that even if they insist on eating meat, the way it is being cooked can also affect their health and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. It is common sense that undercooked meat is bad, but why its bad is what I want people to be informed of. This information is meant to give my audience a bigger perspective on how easy it is to make bad choices regarding what they're eating and how they are eating it. 


Ekmekcioglu, Cem, et al. "Red meat, diseases, and healthy alternatives: A critical review." Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 58.2 (2018): 247-261.

       This source informs its readers that even though eating meat can have some health benefits, the risks when intaking too much can be detrimental to ones health. The increased risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer and many other health issues, can outweigh the minimal benefits eating meat gives someone. They discuss various potential mechanisms involved in the increased disease risk. Nearing the end they also begin to go through alternatives to eating meat and the benefits that come from eating other foods such as, nuts, vegetables and fruits, pulses and legumes. I want to include this source in my podcast because when a lot of people start to cut out meat from their diet, they often don't know how to properly replenish the nutrients in their bodies. This causes them to feel more fatigue and unable to concentrate, along with numerous other side affects. This will eventually cause them to stray form this new diet and go back to old dangerous habits. However, if a person is able to eat the nutrients they need, they will be less likely to go back to eating meat and will feel even better than before. 


Chiu, Tina HT, et al. "Vegetarian diet, change in dietary patterns, and diabetes risk: a prospective study." Nutrition & diabetes 8.1 (2018): 12.

       This source goes into further depth of the vegetarian diet and its lower risk for acquiring type 2 diabetes. However, instead of focusing on American statistics they focus  the impact on Asians.  The delve into the impact of a vegetarian diet and the change of dietary patterns in a Taiwanese Buddhist population. They compare the health risks of people who have been consistent vegetarians versus the health risks of people who have recently transitioned to vegetarianism. I am including this source because I want to show my audience proven fact that eating a diet with no animal protein reduces the risk of diabetes. I like that they compare people who have been vegetarian to people who have recently became vegetarians because it shows that its never too late to lower your risk.  Even eating a diet with less meat would lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. 


Givens, D. Ian. "Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages." animal(2018): 1-13.

       This sources focuses on different dietary patterns and their affects on different stages in a persons life. It goes through a persons diet and what their eating at a certain age can affect their health at a later age. the different health risks can vary from age to age as a person who is younger and eating meat may have a lower risk of type 2 diabetes than a person who is older. I've decided to include this source into my podcast because viewers of any age will be able to relate to this. It can warn a person who may be younger or it can help a person who is older. I want my podcast to be imformative and engaging to viewers of all ages and I want to make sure everyone can leave my podcast with more knowledge than what they had before listening. 












BY: Riana Caggianiello


Ivory Trade (1)

Varsha Ramnarine Singh

See "Ivory Trade (2)" by Victoria Bicknell for Episode Pitch, The Missing Elephant in The Room.

Week One

Hsiang, Solomon. (2018). “Debate: Would a legal Ivory trade save elephants or speed up the massacre?” The Guardian, 01 Oct. 2016.

Hsiang’s article is one that highlights one of the biggest worries about the legality that surrounds the trade of elephant tusks, better known as ivory. It begs the question, if the trade of ivory were to become legal, would the elephant population continue to decrease or become sustainable. In relation to the idea of legalizing ivory trade, Hsiang brings up the fact that in 2008, it was once legalized and ended up backfiring. This article brings to light the issues of legalizing ivory trade both past and present, along with its effects on the population of these majestic creatures. 

Jennings, Ralph. (2018). “China Will Remain an Elephant In The Room Even After Its Ivory Ban.” Forbes, 5 Jan. 2018. 

Jennings' article presents China's position following their recent ban on the trade of ivory. After their recent ban, China is being looked at from a different perspective from fellow countries around the world. In Africa, numerous countries are applauding their ban, while others are focussing their concern in the possible increase of the black market. As the possession of carved ivory is seen as a status symbol in China, many countries are wondering if the trades ban will increase the usage of the black market in order to obtain these. Overall, Jennings' article highlights the possibility of an increased black-market sale of ivory due to their ban that was places on December 31st, 2017. 

Week Two

WWF, “African Elephants”. WWF Global. 

This article by the WWF is one that gives a basic rundown of the African elephant population. Here they cover everything from the weight to the threats which the species has been facing. Having been updated in 2017, this information is recent and up to date. One of the most important topics which this article covers is the threats that the African elephant population has been facing. The biggest problem that the elephants have been facing by far still continues to be the international trade of ivory despite the bans and conservational efforts that have been put forth. The WWF hopes that through widespread awareness, more people will learn of the mass slaughter that is quickly depleting the African elephant population, hopefully allowing for the species to thrive once again.

Doward, Jamie “Pressure Grows for UK to Bring in Blanket Ban on Ivory Trade.” The Guardian, January 7th, 2018. 

Doward’s article is one that presents the position of the United Kingdom following the recent ban that have been put in place against the trade of ivory worldwide. The current issue that the UK government faces surrounds their current allowance of the sale of ivory. In recent years, a poll that was taken revealed that the majority favored a complete ban to be placed on the trade of ivory in the nation. If the government were to go ahead in this favor, they would have to abolish a bill which bans the trade of ivory produced only after 1947. The position that the UK currently faces is one that will hopefully lead them to follow suit with fellow countries worldwide in banning all trade of ivory.

Week Three

Rabson, Mia “Canada must do more to stop trophy hunting of elephants, conservationists say.” Toronto Star, November 28th, 2017. 

Rabson’s article is one that addresses the issue of the decreasing elephant population in Africa. In Canada, the trade of ivory is permitted. Statistics brought forth in Rabson’s article highlights the staggering numbers that make up the domestic trade of ivory between 2007 and 2016. Within this time frame, Canada has allowed the legal importation and trade of 2,647 mammals, 83 of which were elephants. Canada is one of the four countries in the world that still allows for the domestic trade of ivory. An animal rights group called the "Elephanatics" are the driving force of this article as they continue to prompt the Canadian government to join other countries in the ban of domestic and imported of ivory trade.

Government of Canada, “Wild Animal and Plant Trade Regulations.” Government of Canada.  

The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act or WAPPRIITA, is the federal law that regulates the trade of both animal and plants, dead or alive. Overall, this is the Canadian law which allows for the trade of ivory in the country. The Wild Animal and Plant Trade Regulations however, is the list that identifies the various species which are regulated under these rules. Under Schedule I, the Walrus, Rhinoceroses specifically the Southern White Rhino, Asian and African Elephants are included in this list. These are just a few of the named species that are subjects of the ivory trade.

Week Four

Goldman, Russell “Endangered Rhinos Flee From Indian Floods Into Poachers’ Hands.” The New York Times, July 11th, 2017.

Goldman’s article is one that highlights the status of the one horned rhino following the monsoon season of 2017. He discusses the danger that these creatures face due to the high rise of water in the Kaziranga National Park in India. During the monsoon season, heavy rainfall leaves their home flooded, resulting in larger animals such as elephants to move towards safer areas. Unfortunately for the one horned rhino, they ended up seeking refuge further away from the patrol range making it more difficult for authorities of the park to keep an eye on them. Already being an endangered species, the one horned rhino is at high risk of being killed for their ivory the further out from the parks boundaries they go.

Breeden, Aurelien “White Rhinoceros Is Killed for Its Horn At Wildlife Park Near Paris.” The New York Times, March 7th, 2017. 

Breeden’s article is one that highlights the tragic event that took place at the Thoiry Zoo near Paris France. In March of 2017, a four year old white rhino, was shot and killed for its horn. According to the article, the poachers managed to get into the sanctuary, shoot the rhino, and then proceeded to saw off one of its horns before getting away. This is devastating as Vince was one of the small population of white rhinos left in existence as they are extremely endangered and close to extinction. In addition this has never happened in Europe before and the caretakers were shocked. This example shows the extent that humans are willing to go to obtain and partake in the trade of ivory.

Week Five

Beachey, R. W. “The East African Ivory Trade in the Nineteenth Century.” The Journal of African History, vol. 8, no. 2, 1967, pp. 269–290. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/179483

In Beachey’s article he addresses the idea that the Eastern African Ivory Trade is ancient and has been going on for thousands of years. Dating back to the second century A.D. the ivory trade was recorded to have been more prominent than slavery at the time. He says that its thought that the search for ivory is what brought Europeans there in the first place. In addition the reason that the ivory from the Eastern Africa was in such high demand, according to Beachey, the ivory there was soft and therefore ideal for carving. This article explores the ivory trade and its reason for gaining popularity. 

Rauniyar, Ishwar “Nepal’s Rhino Numbers Rise Steadily Thanks To Anti-Poaching Measures.” The Guardian. 16 May 2015. 

Rauniyar’s article highlights the possibility of what could happen if anti-poaching measures are properly enforced. He discusses how the once depleting population of greater one horned rhinoceroses in Nepal was down to a staggering 375 left due to poaching. Ten years later, in 2015, their population has now increased dramatically to 645. This success is attributed to the 1,100 plus soldiers that patrol the Chitwan National Park 24/7. Nepal is a model for what other countries facing animals valued for their ivory should attempt to follow in efforts of preserving and helping these animals. 

Week Six

De Pintado, Beatríz Sanchez Navarro. “IVORY CARVINGS.” Artes De México, no. 190, 1976, pp. 97–99. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/24324410

Beatriz’s article on ivory carvings is one that talks about the historical and cultural use of ivory through the years. He discusses the use of ivory in Mexico, India and Spain, explaining how ivory was used in each country and what purpose it served. He particularly talks about statues and carvings that were made up of multiple materials, ivory included and what significance it held. Overall, Beatriz’s article highlighted the importance and ancient historical and cultural use for ivory in various countries around the world. 

Wasser, Samuel, et al. “Elephants, Ivory, and Trade.” Science, vol. 327, no. 5971, 2010, pp. 1331–1332. New Series, www.jstor.org/stable/40544600

In Samuels article, he addresses the trade of illegal ivory out of Tanzania and Zambia. In 2010 when this article came out, researchers found that majority of the ivory sold and traded both legally and illegally out of these countries was beyond the agreed amount following the policies that were put in place during the moratorium. During 2002, 2006, and 2009, Tanzania and Zambia were found to have exploited the ivory moratorium illegally for their own benefit. Samuels article shows just how far some countries have gone in the past to trade ivory both legally, but mostly illegally.