Phase Three

Week 9: You’re A Real Character

As I outlined in week eight (Phase Two) I have already found some particularity intriguing works to present as characters in my piece. Here are some of them.

Animals Australia’s What is factory farming? – Us and the planet (2012). This is a video that describes factory farming succinctly, and informatively. I will be using a section of it as a soundbite in my episode and this I must make it a character in the episode. Then there’s The influence of psychological traits, beliefs and taste responsiveness on implicit attitudes toward plant – and animal-based dishes among vegetarians, flexitarians and omnivores (2018). This article discusses the psychological indicators that make people more or less inclines to adopt an eco-conscious diet. The words in the article are invaluable to answering one of my research questions and thus I will probably make it a character in the episode as well.

The last article I’ll be discussing in this post became a character because not only did it help answer some of my questions, it also had me asking new questions that changed the way I thought about the topic. It was pivotal to forming my focus question. It’s With changing tastes, flexitarianism is the most popular item on the menu (2018) by Professor Sylvian Charlebois. This article was the one I began with. The one we were made to choose at the beginning of the class. It has been pivotal to my research and thus it will be represented in the episode.

I have never doubted writing is anything other than communication. That is not a new thought. Writing enables us to project our thoughts and ideas into the future. In this sense I was not intrigued, or caught off guard by the idea of using the articles as potential ‘characters’.

Phase Three

Week 9

The sources that I have found to be extremely useful are three scholarly sources that I examined during my initial pitch and have kept in mind throughout my research as the main ones that will complement the other sources I have. Explaining Black Conservatives: Racial Uplift or Racial Resentment has been a tremendous help for me when discussing my first point on Black conservatives and their place in current U.S politics. The article examines the history of where and how they first started and the main reasonings for their political choice. Having this historical point of view has been beneficial when discussing the more current day, radical Black conservative because there are many parallels from the article that correlate to their current train of thought, essentially showing that history repeats itself.

  White Nationalism, Armed Culture and State Violence in the Age of Donald Trump is one of the primary articles for my second point, the president and his stance on racial issues and minority groups. The article goes into extreme detail on how his presidency has brought back many racist, white supremacist groups into the forefront of American culture. The articles/sources that complement White Nationalism will detail these issues even further.

   Lastly, the book The Cultural Impact of Kanye West will round off my third argument, the influence of Kanye and why so many people adore and feel inspired by him. Looking into his career highlights and moments of controversy (such as his George Bush 2005 comments) and the social implications it has on modern African American society.

  With each of these sources, I have found at least four characters that symbolize my arguments. Firstly, there is the radical Black Conservative who supports Trump no matter what. They use their political stance as a form of self-inflicted racism towards their own culture. The second character is Donald Trump (who is really a character in and of himself!) who is a manipulative liar, biased towards particular racial and financial groups with a laundry list of allegations and accusations towards him that would impeach any other president. Kanye West is the third character; an iconic superstar who has made/said a myriad of things that have slowly divided his fanbase, with his recent Trump support being the line he finally crossed. The fourth character (one I find myself identifying with) is the Kanye fan, somebody who grew up with his music and bypassed his previous controversial moments, but who know feels divided as to whether or not they should keep supporting him or boycott him.


Bailey, Julius, and Ebrary - York University
2014. The Cultural Impact of Kanye West. First edition. New York : Palgrave Macmillan,.

Giroux, Henry A.
2017. White Nationalism, Armed Culture and State Violence in the Age of Donald Trump. Philosophy & Social Criticism 43(9): 887–910.

Orey, Byron D’Andra
2004. Explaining Black Conservatives: Racial Uplift or Racial Resentment? The Black Scholar 34(1): 18–22.


Phase Two

Week 5

A popular source is a source which is not scholarly but rather can be found easily. This can include anything from newspapers or magazines. They are usually written to inform, entertain or persuade the general reader, and can be written by anyone whom may not be a specialist in that specific topic, freelance writers. It is accessible for everyday basic language. To test their credibility is to look into who has written the piece and which website it is coming from, which should generally be creditable. Finding sources with two or more similar results is helpful.

A keyword is a word, which when researching about a certain topic, can be searched to access information about the word faster. It can narrow your research and is very useful research strategy. Keywords that I have complied are vegan, junk food, vegetarian, diet, and nutrients.

Week 6

The two scholarly sources that I am using for my research when creating my podcast are JSTOR and Google Scholar to help me with articles that can make my research clearer. A scholarly source is written by experts or experts in the field and is intended for a specialized audience. It is a peer reviewed source which adds credibility to the work since it is review by other experts.

The key words I have searched for in both JSTOR and Google Scholar are vegan food, dairy products, and meat products. I have mainly used these key words to identify and narrow my research. With the help of these key words I am able to speculate and critique many other opinions that I would not have known before. From this experience I have learned that the technique of key words helps narrow down your research and make it simple for you to access.

Week 7

Government, industry, and institutional sources are all useful, and to which all serve as authoritative arguments in a piece. Credibility helps in my podcast which further helps support the arguments I have made, making the piece very powerful. It is important because readers or listeners tend to respond and give feedback on persuasive articles based on an authors perception.

Week 8

0 – 5 minutes

Hook onto the topic of vegan food in general. Then introduce the article and discuss further about vegan junk food and how it has become more mainstream. Explain and talk about nutrition values with both vegan food and non-vegan food.

5 – 10 minutes

Introduce the main question we are researching about. Does consuming dairy or meat products affect your health. Here we will be discussing health benefits of consuming dairy and health benefits without consuming dairy.

10 – 15 minutes

Continuing with the second part of the question. At this point we will be discussing health benefits of consuming meat products and health benefits without consuming meat products.

15 – 20 minutes

Here the question will finally be answered, and we will determine whether being vegan for the rest of your life is healthy or not.  I will then say what my opinion on the matter is and close the podcast asking for listeners to consider whether or not being vegan is beneficial for your health or not. Exit with a fair well.

Phase Three

Week Nine: Characters

Redskins, Tricksters and Puppy Stew has been a particularly helpful documentary as it helps to put faces with statistics. This association humanizes the suffering associated with verbal harassment as well as the free speech movement. Throughout this film we see many indigenous comedians on and off stage. We see the intent behind their jokes, such as reclaiming their identities or even voicing change in a non-threatening manor. This relaxed, yet hands on approach to activism is a nice contrast to the ridged confines of government censorship. These comedians themselves are presented as positive characters in my podcast. They help to show that you can take an issue very seriously and still mock the outrageousness of its origin.

This documentary and the narrative it forwards also helps to compliment my interview with my friend Josie. She is a white looking indigenous woman with great involvement in her community. Her point of view, is very much accented by what these comedians have to say. This allows me to gain the trust of the listeners, as I have people from varying backgrounds, each with something crucial to add to the discussion.

Next, the article “The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families” helps to add an academic element to my argument. This article cites a variety of studies essentially supporting the coping strategies used by many of the above mentioned comedians. Furthermore, it takes a more scientific approach to the overall subjectivity of “offensive humour”, discrediting the false claims made by the opinion piece in which I have centred my podcast around. This article serves to paint Simon Weaver, author of the opinion piece, in an antagonistic light. Helping to highlight the narrow scope of his opinion, and his personal biases.

Finally, the article “The Right to Free Expression”, helps to highlight that “freedom of expression is at the core of constitutional democracy” (2002). This article points out many of the hypocrisies in a democratic society. In turn, I will be able to point out the problems with government censorship and the infringements on humans rights. Of course, free speech comes with potential problems. Many of the problems surrounding this issue originate from the subjectivity of the metaphorical “line to be crossed”. In my podcast I will discuss this line, and ultimately the major consequences stemming from an overly controlling government.

In conclusion, writing is a form of expression. Whether or not the style of writing is academic, casual or even a visual representation of a scientific study, writing serves to transmit information amongst humans. As such, written work is essentially people saying things. It is thus very helpful to think of written works as more than just information to be digested, but as ways we share people’s stories, beliefs and lives. We all have stories worth telling and thus we are all characters in our own lives.

Gilgun, J., & Sharma, A. (2012). The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families. The British Journal of Social Work, 42(3), 560-577. Retrieved from

Basmajian, S. (Producer), & Taylor, D. (Director). (2000) Redskins, Tricksters and Puppy Stew [Motion Picture]. Canada: National Film Board of Canada (NFB).

Harvey, C. (2002). The Right to Free Expression. Fortnight, (402), 18-19. Retrieved from

Phase Three

Week Nine

As we enter phase three, I have narrowed the scope of my research and ended up with a variety of sources that are proving to be particularly useful. A journal article by Pamela Palmater, a Mi’kmaq lawyer and activist, that explores police racism and sexualized violence against Indigenous women and girls is standing out especially. Palmater argues that incidents of police violence against Indigenous women are almost always treated as “employee discipline matters,” and that “police racism [and sexism] . . . [are] both a cause and barrier to addressing the crisis of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls in Canada.” The journal article also looks at Tina Fontaine’s case in detail and outlines federal and provincial inquiries into police violence against Indigenous people that have occurred from 1989-2013.

As I said in earlier blog posts, the institutional sources I’ve found really compliment the arguments made in Palmater’s article. When comparing a report from the RCMP about missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls to a fact sheet compiled by the Native Women’s Association of Canada, the inconsistencies between state and activist data highlight the strained relationship between Indigenous women and law enforcement. While the RCMP’s report put the national number of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls just below 1200, the NWAC’s report emphasizes how difficult it is to gather data because “there are no national data sources regarding missing persons in Canada.” This divide between law enforcement and Indigenous women is also demonstrated in a CBC article that reports that this statistic may actually be closer to over 4000 missing women and girls, suggesting that maybe the RCMP’s report didn’t reflect the truth.

When thinking about how I could use these sources as characters, I saw that three distinct players were arising from my research: Tina Fontaine, who would stand for the victims of violence, the perpetrators, which is the police force in this instance, and activists. If I look at sources as people saying things through writing, then I become less concerned with finding information to support my claims than I am with using these people’s stories as a way to craft the narrative of my podcast.


Native Women’s Association of Canada. (n.d.). Fact Sheet: Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls. Retrieved from _Aboriginal_Women_and_Girls.p

Palmater, Pamela. (2016, August). Shining Light on the Dark Places: Addressing Police Racism and Sexualized Violence against Indigenous Women and Girls in the National Inquiry. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 28, 253-284. doi: 10.3138/cjwl.28.2.253

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2014). Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview. Retrieved from

Tasker, J.P. (2016, 16 February). Confusion Reigns over number of missing, murdered indigenous women. CBC. Retrieved from

Phase Three:

Blog #9: Character Sketches

One source that stands out to me as being particularly useful is an article called, “Teen Depression and Anxiety: Why the Kids Are Not Alright.” In this article, the author interviews, and includes quotations from adolescents speaking about their lives and their on-going struggles with anxiety. There is one young adolescent, who is interviewed that I would like to use as a character.

For privacy purposes, I will change this young woman’s name, and I will call her, Ella. Ella is a high school student, who has suffered from anxiety since the eighth grade. According to the article, she was always worrying, “about grades, about her future, about relationships, about everything. Many days she felt ill before school. Sometimes she’d throw up, others times she’d stay home.”  A quotation that I particularly want to incorporate when it comes to creating Ella’s character in my podcast is how she describes her everyday battle with anxiety. Ella in the article was quoted saying, “It was like asking me to climb Mount Everest in high heels.” 

Another character I would like to include in my podcast is a young man’s perspective on the anxiety and pressures he feels from balancing school, work, and preparing for college. I’m going to call this young man for privacy purposes, Jack. Jack is described in this article as being, “a high-achieving 18-year-old senior in Kent, Wash., [he] is the first college-bound kid in his family. He recently became a finalist for prestigious scholarships, all while working 10 to 15 hours a week at a Microsoft internship and helping to care for his younger brothers.” When it comes to Tommy’s reflections on his anxiety and how he deals with the overwhelming situation he remarks, “It’s hard to describe the stress. […] I’m calm on the outside, but inside it’s like a demon in your stomach trying to consume you.” 

Another character I would like to incorporate in my podcast is Robert Mann, who was interviewed for an article by the Globe and Mail that is called, “Number of Ontario teens with psychological distress rising at alarming rate: study.” Robert Mann is a head researcher for a survey that was conducted by a Toronto-based Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. There are so many excellent quotations that Robert is quoted saying in the article. One quotation that I thought related to my podcast was how he reflected on how adolescents view their lives to be more stressful and grimmer because of their anxiety and the overwhelming pressure they feel. Robert Mann claims that “Most of us consider the adolescent years the peak of your life—your life is ahead of you, the world is your oyster—but that seems not to be the case.” From there, I want to discuss the findings of the survey that Robert conducted. An example of discovery from the survey I want to include was, “Grade 12s, for instance, were four times more likely than Grade 7s to report high levels of stress, and more than twice as likely to rate their mental health as fair or poor.” I want to analyze the entire survey in depth and use it as supporting as evidence on how there is an incline of anxiety rates amongst adolescents more than ever due to society’s overwhelming expectations.


Anderssen, E. (2018, May 17). Number of Ontario teens with psychological distress rising at 

  alarming rate: Study. Retrieved from



Schrobsdorff, S. (n.d.). What's Causing Depression And Anxiety In Teens? Retrieved from




Phase Two

week five.

A popular source is a non-scholarly source accessible to and created with the general public in mind; those who carry a limited amount of knowledge on the subject. Although these sources are not scholarly and are not written by experts in the field they are discussing, they may be useful in many circumstances. In some cases, these sources may be used for citations in assignments, however often should not be your primary/only source. These sources are also great for entertainment purposes, convenience, to have an updated/refreshed knowledge on current political, environmental or pop culture events/issues. Examples of this would include websites such as Buzzfeed, Wikipedia, Cosmopolitan, Refinery 29, etc. Scholarly sources would be those which are more citation-based, research and written by scholars/experts.

In order to determine the credibility of a source you may want to take a look at the author (if no author is cited, you may want to refrain from using this source or take caution), the citations used (if any; again, if no citations are made this may not be a reliable source), consider taking a look at other sources to deem how factual the one in question is, look at the date of research and/or publication (studies may be irrelevant to your focus), pay attention to its domain (.com, .ca, .net, .org may be purchased by an individual. Websites ending in .edu and .gov indicate a government or education/university/scholarly piece.), and the style of writing (formal or informal? Are there errors in spelling/grammar?) (Kevin B. 1). Another more obvious tip would be analyzing the style of the actual website’s design/layout (Kevin B. 2). Using this guideline makes it a bit more obvious why a website like would be more reliable than someone’s prezi, blog, or an individually purchased website if I were researching a topic like Amelia Earhart, for instance.

A popular search engine I believe everyone is guilty of using before trying others, or any at all, is Google. We may also use Google scholar, university websites, government websites, etc. Something students also tend to struggle with is the use of keywords. Students, myself included, are accusable for is using too broad or too specific of a search. Keywords I would apply for my podcast (on the poor self esteem of young minority girls created by the media) research include; minority children, self-esteem, stereotyping, doll test, minority girls, mental health, minority representation, media representation, etc.

week six

A scholarly source is a piece of work written by a scholar with a deep and well-researched knowledge on the topic at hand, a variety of citations to other texts, research, etc. should be made by the author. This may include books, journals, articles, etc. Scholarly texts I found useful in my research process includes the article entitled, “Self-Concepts, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement of Minority and Majority North American Elementary School Children” written by Dario Cvencek, Stephanie A. Fryberg, Rebecca Covarrubias, Andrew N. Meltzoff. I deemed this a reliable source as it was written by scholars from the universities of California, Santa Cruz and Washington and was written in July/August of 2018, which is very recent. The authors have also included multiple reliable sources, citing their prior research. The article fits positively in with the guideline for deeming a text reliable I have cited in week five’s blog post. I found this post by searching through Google Scholar

The importance of using the right search engine affects your overall research. For instance, if I were to search up “mental health” in a science website, I would get facts and information based on the science of mental health, rather than statistics and the psychology behind it. I’ve experienced this in past projects. A more recent example would be when searching up terms for my law class through Google, but receiving a definition for something different.

works cited.

B., Kevin. "How Can I Tell If A Website Is Credible?". Uknowit.Uwgb.Edu, 2019,

Carlson, C., Uppal, S., & Prosser, E. C. (2000). Ethnic Differences in Processes Contributing to the Self-Esteem of Early Adolescent Girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(1), 44–67.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, "Using Popular Sources | Library". Library.Wisc.Edu, 2019,



A popular source would be one that has credibility and has all of it’s publication information available where you found it. A good source should have a reliable author and a reliable publisher so that you know that the source is genuine. A good trick to do when finding sources online is to check if the website has an authentic certificate. This is an indicator that the creator has genuine information as it shows that is an official website and not just some random guy on the internet posting things without any validity. To elaborate, the website should have a reputable publisher with all their publication information listed on the page to know that the source is reliable.

Here is an example from the Toronto Star:

As you can see, the author’s name as well as the publication info is listed right under the title which leads me to believe that this is a reputable source.

A keyword is a word that you can use during your research to find the information that you are looking for. Perhaps your topic is not very popular and it is difficult to find sources about your topic. To get past this obstacle, you need to find out what keywords your topic has that you can use to find sources about.


My first scholarly resource is The Canadian Encyclopedia. I’m using their section on the Indian Act to find out about the laws surrounding Aboriginal communities. I believe this is a scholarly resource because it is funded by the Government of Canada. As a government resource, I do not think that it is possible for this resource to not be reliable. I found this source while searching for articles on Canada’s reconciliation process with the Aboriginal community and found a sentence referencing The Indian Act.

My second scholarly resource is a book called Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling and Reconciliation in Canada. I will use this resource for it’s information on reconciliation and any other information that it holds that I can use. This is a scholarly resource due to being written by an author who holds the role of “Director of Research for Truth and Reconciliation Comission of Canada”. She also has PhD in Indigenous Governance. I believe all these things combined make for an extremely valuable scholarly resource.

In my search for scholarly resources on Google Scholar, I have faced the issue of finding irrelevant resources due to the words I search. By searching indigenous issues, I was getting resources about Australian indigenous issues as well as South African issues. I overcame this issue by changing my search to “reconciliation Canada” to finally come across resources I could actually use.


I believe that for my particular topic, government sources are relevant, as the government is one of two parties discussed in my podcast. As I said in my week 6 blog post, I was using the Indian Act from the Canadian Encyclopedia as a source. However I don’t believe many other topics would find government sources as useful. But other topics can still use industry sources if their podcasts are about company ethics or something similar to that.


week eight.jpg


Blog post #8

The question I will be answering on my podcast is ‘ How does audiobooks help kids with dyslexia in classrooms?’ The target of my podcast will be adults, I think teenagers are not the right age group to target due to them not having as much power as an adult would and it will be these adults who might have kids with dyslexia so opening their eyes on a topic that’s usually forgotten about would help me achieve my goal. 

Dyslexia is a learning disorder that involves difficulty in learning to read or interpret words, letters and other symbols. Dyslexia is usually caused by genes, if your parents or grandparents have had dyslexia you have a high chance of having dyslexia and so on. When a kid has dyslexia they can feel very left out in classrooms and  ‘Learning Ally’ has done a video with students who have dyslexia and the students mention how having audiobooks will help them come to class prepared and not have the worry of being the student that’s behind on assignments and reading. 

Having and audiobook will help the kids listen to how the words are being pronounced and they can follow along with their textbook with this they can both hear the word and see it. This allows them to focus on the meaning of the word rather than just decoding what they’re reading. More they read and listen to books their reading level will improve and could be able to read books above their reading level and when new information is presented to them they will be able to understand it better.

Ally, L. (2016, July 12). Dyslexic Students Share Their Experience With Audiobooks. Retrieved from

Blog post #7

When I was dong research about audiobooks I mainly focused on popular and scholar sources. Using government sources has never crossed my mind and when I did go on I couldn’t find anything good on their website. would be great for someone who is doing their podcast on politics.

If audiobooks and dyslexia was more talked about and was more common in classrooms there could have been useful information on government website but its not. Due to audiobooks being more popular within the younger generation I could find more popular opinions than scholarly or government. Popular sources are as useful as scholarly sources due to the fact that before writing their opinion on the topic they do research on it and to see if the information they are presenting is credible you can always just check their sources.

Blog post #6

A scholarly article is a paper written by scholars or professionals that are expert in their fields. When it comes to scholarly articles I usually got to York’s library or google scholar, they’re both great for finding a scholarly articles. I prefer York Universities library over google scholar due to the fact that I may have to pay to view the full article on google scholar however York gives me free access to any article. 

My first article focuses on benefits on listening of audiobooks, what type of students can benefit from using audiobooks. This scholarly article will help me gain more information when I am answering my focus question “How does audiobooks help kids with dyslexia in classrooms?” The article does not just cover kids with dyslexia but it answers the more broad question of how does audiobooks help kids? 

My second source  is a book on Dyslexia and other learning difficulties by Mark Selikowitz. Mark Selikowitz is a consultant developmental paediatrician and he has over 30 years of experience in diagnosis and treatment of childhood developmental problems. In his book, he focuses on what the learning difficulties are and how they are diagnosed. He also explains different areas of learning such as reading. 

 When finding an article I searched keywords such as ‘dyslexia’ ‘audiobooks’ ‘audible’ ‘kids with dyslexia’ and most of the sources answered more of the broad questions about kids with dyslexia.

Casbergue, R. M., & Harris, K. (1996). Listening and Literacy: Audiobooks in the Reading Program. Reading Horizons, 37 (1).  Retrieved from

Selikowitz, M. (n.d.). Dyslexia and Other Learning Difficulties. Retrieved from

Blog post #5

A popular source is a source intended for the general source and its written by the public. They are written to entertain, inform, or persuade and are generally posted on blogs or on social media. They can be useful when you’re trying to find an opinion similar to yours to make your argument better. 

An effective method of evaluating their credibility is to check who the author of that source is and to research the author to see if he/she is a professor or someone who has a degree or has done credible work on that topic. Also checking where it’s posted can be very helpful. If it’s on a blog it’s probably a popular source and not an academic source. For example, if it’s posted by an influencer on their blog or on Buzzfeed it’s a popular source and they probably haven’t done a lot of research on the topic and have not cited their sources. However, if it’s posted on TMZ or CNN its probably more credible and have been probably cited.

Keywords are usually used to find articles or videos on that topic and it also narrows down your research. Some keywords I can use for my podcast would be: Audiobook, audible, reading, paper books, books, and multitask



To begin, a scholarly source is defined as sources that “are written by experts in a particular field and serve to keep others interested in that field up to date on the most recent research, findings”. Surrounding the topic of youth mental health, specifically those in juvenile centres, for my episode the following two scholarly sources have proven to be helpful.

Ralph H. Ojemann’s Mental Health in Community Life, is a great scholarly source. I found this article by using JSTOR and typing in the search engine my key words “Mental Health” and “Juvenile Centre”. This article has proven to be valuable for many reasons. For one, this article was published in 2015, making it’s content fairly recent. The article explores different governments and youth correctional procedures. This source is also reliable due to the American Educational Research Association being the publisher themselves.

My second article, Juvenile Education in Abu Dhabi: Insights from and Implications of School Policies for Educational Equity and Inclusion, by Rida Blaik Hourani and David Litz. This source was published in 2018, making the information mentioned incredibly recent. The article also looks at solutions to lowering youth crime by incorporating family support. I discovered this article from the same search engine as the first article, JSTOR, by searching my key word “Juvenile Centre”.

When searching keywords in specific search engines, you have to take into account the type of information you need. When searching a word in a humanities engine, you’ll discover more qualitative data, whereas with a scientific engine you may come up with more quantitative data.




A popular source is defined as a means of obtaining information usually intended for the consumption by those individuals that may not be knowledgeable of the topic discussed, in simpler terms; any source that isn’t scholarly.  Popular sources are used to inform and persuade the general public, and can present itself in the form of blog posts, articles and social media posts, not necessarily written by experts in the field.

Popular sources can prove to be helpful in many circumstances. For the general public who may not have studied a certain subject in great depth,  a public source can provide a general understanding, with more broad statements and simpler terms used.

When debating on the credibility of a popular source, there are many factors that can be utilized to effectively evaluate integrity. To begin, taking into account who the author is can be a key factor. The author's credibility to discuss a topic is backed up by longevity of research, achievements such as degrees, and overall credibility in their prospective field. Another factor into evaluating integrity would be taking into account sponsors; exploring who’s funding the production of certain popular sources should be reviewed since the sponsor can play an influential role in the direction the source takes. Lastly, citations are a big give away. Being able to pinpoint certain ideas presented and being able to explore how the author formed their ideas just adds to credibility.

A “Key word” is defined by the english dictionary as “a word or concept of great significance. An informative word used in an information retrieval system to indicate the content of a document. A significant word mentioned in an index”. Key words help to make research smoother, cutting time by finding specific research and sorting general information. -

Keywords compiled for my topic include:

-Mental Health

-Juvenile Centres




Phase Two Mark.C

Week 8 Episode Outline

Click here to view the full episode outline

Week 7

During my research for my opinion piece pitch, I initially looked towards institutional sources. I felt that the handful of these types of resources would be beneficial for my own research because of the credibility and credentials that these cultural writers/authors had. There is also the notion that institutional sources are the most reliable, something that throughout my academic career made me rarely look at or often times avoid industry sources. The ones I did come across were directly related to popular sources, but after week 5’s blog post I’ve begun to reconsider that, as they too have become extremely helpful for their accessibility and content, being a more toned down and easier to decipher form of material.

 As far as government sources, while they have proved to be a credible resource, for my own research in my podcast I have looked at them with a bit of caution. Mainly because of the direction that I plan on taking my episode in, government sources do not seem to be as beneficial as the information I have looked at does not match with the content that I have been relying on, which is mostly institutional and industry sources whose take on my matter is more so a cultural, humanitarian approach.


MABONA, Mongameli, 1996, INTERVIEWS. Présence Africaine(153). JSTOR: 82–85.

Official Guide to Government Information and Services | USAGov N.d., accessed March 04, 2019.

Storyboard process for my episode outline from last week’s tutorial.

Storyboard process for my episode outline from last week’s tutorial.

Week 6

  Two Scholarly sources that have aided in my research are Julius Bailey’s The Cultural Impact of Kanye West and Caithlin Mercer’s paper titled Kanye West and The Digital Information Matrix Lessons on misinformation from a hip hop artist.  As unbelievable as it may seem but yes, there is an entire book about Kanye and I am surprised that it was not written by him. It looks into how Kanye has gone against the norms of traditional Western ideas through his music. A section that peaked my interest deals with his controversial “George Bush doesn’t care about Black people” comments he made during Hurricane Katrina, detailing both incident and what it meant for Kanye. It is an example of how Kanye essentially stood up for his community at a time when he felt they were being treated as unimportant and has now alienated that same community with his support of Donald Trump.

The latter source, written very recently, goes more in depth into how misinformed Kanye comes off through his Twitter and explains the relationship he has with Candace Owens, a vocal Black Conservative. These two examples from the paper are beneficial for me because they give me more insight to how these two individuals see the world, but it also shows how the media and fake news can twist their stories around.

I consider both of my examples to be scholarly sources as both are written by academics or experts in their respective fields. I’ll point out Mercer as an obvious example because her paper was written for the Reuter’s Institute, a journalism school where she spent the few months studying algorithms, their relationship to news media and using Kanye West as an example.

During my research, keywords I used range from “Black conservatism”, “Donald Trump”, “Kanye West” and “racism”. By plugging these words into various databases (mostly humanities or politics) The sources I found either went into extreme detail about the political implications, or the social issues that have arisen.


Bailey, Julius, and Ebrary - York University.(2014). The Cultural Impact of Kanye West. First edition. New York : Palgrave Macmillan,.

Mercer, Caithlin.(2018). Kanye West and The Digital Information Matrix Lessons on misinformation from a hip-hop artist.

Kellner, D. (2018). Donald Trump as Authoritarian Populist: A Frommian Analysis. In Morelock J. (Ed.), Critical Theory and Authoritarian Populism (pp. 71-82). London: University of Westminster Press. Retrieved from

Week 5

As gathered from lecture, a popular source (while not an unreliable one) is a resource commonly used by people and not meant for scholarly/academic use. These are things such as news articles, blog posts and opinion pieces. Popular sources are useful because of their accessibility, the information is easy for most readers to understand because of the context they come from, which is the general public. One of the ways to evaluate their credibility (with help from the PARCA Test) is the source’s authority and currency. Knowing whether or not the writer works for a reputable organization, as well as knowing if the information is relevant or has been updated can boost the credibility of a popular source. A common popular source I find myself using is Complex media, the information they provide is constantly updated when new info becomes present, and the writers more often than not report stories as soon as they happen.

A keyword can optimize your Google search by narrowing down a broad topic into a few key terms. When researching for my opinion piece, I compiled a small list of keywords to push my research in the right direction.

-Kanye West, Conservatism, Republican Party, Racism, Hip-Hop, Donald Trump,

Phase 2

Week 8:

Transcript for the episode outline:

 Hey there! My name is Brittany Ramgolam and my podcast will open with a discussion about what the current mental issues are, why they came to be, and what alternative methods people have, in recent years, started to use. This part will last 2-3 minutes at most because it does not help answer the main question which is “how effective is counselling when it comes to dealing with mental health?”. The point in opening the podcast like this is to gain the viewers attention because people usually want to deal with their mental health alone using alternative methods that does not always work. After this, I will follow up with a personal story about the mental health issues I have dealt with and how meditating with the self compassion website and head-space was my alternative to dealing with the issues head on.

I am very passionate about the brain and mental health, so I am dedicated in finding the perfect candidates to interview and answer my main question “how effective is counselling when it comes to dealing with mental health?”. I will be interviewing Sharmin Hasan, a high school child and youth worker who works with high school kids daily in hopes of helping them solve their problems whether they are mental health related or not. I will also be interviewing Jennifer Mackenzie who is an addiction counsellor at YMCA. The reason I chose to interview her is because I want to learn about the connections between drugs and the brain. Some people use drugs to deal with their rapid thoughts or their inability to do anything. After both interviews, I will reiterate the most important things that they said and make the answer to my main question obvious. The answer to my main question being that talking to a counsellor is indeed effective in dealing with mental health issues.

At the end of the podcast I want to have a casual personal conversation with one or two of my friends about the topic of mental health. Ideally, I want to talk to a friend who is taking a psychology class at York so that they have more insight on the topic and give me as much rich detail as they can while also keeping the conversation fluent and casual. After that conversation I will go over every single important thing that was said in the podcast. I will restate the main question again “how effective is counselling when it comes to dealing with mental health?” and finally have an answer that has come together smoothly and effectively through research, interviews, and conversation. Finally, in the last few minutes of my podcast I will say a special thanks to every one who took part in the podcast, I will say there is nothing wrong with you if you deal with mental health issues and if the viewer wants help, I will say a few numbers that they can call to talk to a counsellor. This is how I want my podcast to be formatted but of course it is not set in stone so therefore it can change slightly and probably be even better.

Week 7:

Government, industry and institutional sources can be very relevant. is an excellent platform where students can get information on anything to do with, obviously, Canada. With my podcast, I am focussing on mental health. For example, one of the first things I searched was “government information on mental health” in a basic google search and the first thing that came up was “mental health and wellness –” and from there I can click on any link that interests me. I clicked on “improving your mental health” and eight wonderful links came up. I did a quick overview of each of the links and found many more detailed links that pertained to what I wanted to find. That was only one of the searches that I did for government rooted research.  On this one website

I found explanations of different mental illnesses and what to do about them. I also found different coping mechanisms for issues related to switching schools and fields to becoming a parent and medical emergencies. Of course, I need to use different links and have multiple different platforms for my research but if I just started my research, I would call this website a gold mine.


 Public Health Agency of Canada. (2015, November 24). Improving your mental health. Retrieved March 4, 2019, from

 Public Health Agency of Canada. (2015, October 21). Protective and risk factors for mental health. Retrieved March 4, 2019, from

 Public Health Agency of Canada. (2019, January 09). Mental health and wellness. Retrieved March 4, 2019, from

 Week 6:

I mainly use google scholar for when I need credible sources for research. Earlier this week I found these two useful articles. There are so much negative biases to mental health and the article “Negative Attitudes toward Help Seeking for Mental Illness in 2 Population-Based Surveys from the United States and Canada” explain the surveys that turned negative towards help seeking for mental health in the United States and Canada. While we are encouraged to seek help for mental health issues, there is this strong bias that if you go through with the help given, you are a broken or damaged human and people treat you differently. My other article focuses specifically on the African-American, Latino, and Caucasian youth community and investigates the percentages of who of the three suffer with mental health the most and why. I have not used other databases yet but that is my next step. The first key words I will use will of course be mental and health.


Jagdeo, A., Cox, B. J., & Stein, M. B. (2009, November 1). Negative Attitudes toward Help Seeking for Mental Illness in 2 Population Based Surveys from the United States and Canada. Retrieved February 16, 2019, from

 McMiller, W. P., & Weisz, J. W. (2010, January 04). Help-Seeking Preceding Mental Health Clinic Intake among African-American, Latino, and Caucasian Youths. Retrieved February 16, 2019, from

Week 5:

A popular source is a source that can be used by anyone and can be used many times. Some examples of this are newspapers, blogs, social media, and people with experience on your topic (a therapist for example). These are useful because they help you go more into depth about your topic that you are doing your podcast on. The way you can evaluate their credibility is by seeing who wrote it, what company it is apart of, if their past works are useful and if they were ever useful (sometimes you can see if something is useful by seeing what else it was in, if anything). A keyword is something you can use when researching. For example, one of my key words can be “mental” and “health”. Searches with your keywords will come up making is easier to find more helpful articles. So far, my keywords are; mental, health, running, swimming, cooking, prescriptions, and therapy. I have found a lot of useful information with these keywords. Some are better than others but that is what happens when you are a researcher.

Phase Two

Week 8

Podcast Outline


  • Violence in video games

Opinion Piece

  • Kaelan Dorr, OPINION: WHO and critics' panic over video games is unfounded: Focuses on how the violence in video games should not be so looked down upon, but rather see that video games, or games in general, can be helpful towards the society in terms of community, education, self-expression and creativity

Focus Question

  • Are video games producing a decline in young people’s mental and physical health?  


  • People have implicated a stereotype that video games led to violence, assuming gamers are just as they are because of the games they play, but there is a more deep rooted issue rising with video games. The main problem is young people have begun to dive their lives into video games, not only leading to a drop in physical health, but mentally changing the way they view themselves and society.

For my introduction, I will start off by discussing the current rise of video games. In America, there are approximately more than 150 million people playing video games, according to the 2015 Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry (Afjv). I will mention as well, that according to the same study, 42% percent of these gamers play regularly throughout their week. Not only the increase of video game consumption in general, but the types of games that are being focused on. First person shooters, known as FPS for short, have become one of the most common genre of game produced since the early 1970’s (Geek). A shooting genre game, as well the the number of people playing games altogether: how are they linked? Everyone plays games. Even so, what is the big deal with games?

After a short transition, I will begin to introduce how the popularity of video games may be bringing along a negative effect on people’s health. Certain areas I would want to cover is the idea of mental health; what are video games doing to people’s minds? For this section, I decided to look upon the idea of anxiety and depression. Give a definition to both. As I describe both of them, there will be a silence in order to produce the atmosphere of a serious discussion.

Going on, I will bring up as to why I mention these forms of mental illnesses, as well as a new form of disorder introduced by WHO, known as the Gaming Disorder (Global News). It is because they seem to be impacting others through the form of games. Games, especially in the violent category, are known to hold factors such as mature content, nudity, language, gore and use of drugs and alcohol. Scenes in video games withholding such objects are not common in everyday life, exposing this to the players. What do the players understand/feel by seeing this? I will look into it, explaining how mental health may decline as a result.

Transition as I move onto the topic of physical health. Here, I will explain that not only is mental health an issue, but physical well being shows how games are taking over people. As people become more addicted to gaming, there are issues surrounding health of others, such as isolation for long amounts of time, limited eating, limited sleeping, eyestrain, headaches, fatigue, etc..(LiveStrong). After explaining these sorts of symptoms, I’ll talk about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, which can occur due to long amounts of time using a controller/mouse. Here, I would like to find some characters to help explain physical health aspects, such as the syndrome in order to reassure my audience.

Moving onto the last area, I will conclude on how these sort of results are being produced due to video games. That there is this new growing stress amongst the society on how video games are slowly overtaking people’s lives. I would like to end with ways on how to prevent such things from occurring on a daily basis, such as taking breaks or finding a new hobby. Introduce another character here to help provide more examples.  

End with the note that while video games may produce health impacts, that as long as people are monitoring their playtime, everything should be alright.   


Drea Christopher. The Negative Effects of Video Game Addiction. Retrieved from

K. Thor Jensen. (2017, November 10). The Complete History of First Person Shooters. Retrieved from  

Jamey Keaten and Maria Cheng. (2018, June 18). Video game addiction listed as a mental health problem by WHO. Global News. Retrieved from

Unknown. (2015, April 2015). More than 150 million Americans play video games. New Study Finds That Four Out Of Five American Households A Device Used To Play Video Games. Retrieved from

Week 7

Types of Sources

For this project, I think being able to use these types of sources will offer different perspectives. For my topic, it reflects on more research from the public eye, such as magazines and newspapers, rather than government documents. If it’s for research purposes, such as experiments conducted on video games, then documents that hold some sort of information on that area may be helpful. Besides that, I don’t think that these sort of documents will be much help to my own research. Even so, by looking through types of sources, it can give an example of forms of research. Since my topic is highly dependent on video games, they may be connected more to the effects towards the public. If so, then sources such as government and industry may show numerous items. Government because of the issues revolving around gun laws connected to violence influenced from video games. Statistics involving how violence has risen, or children becoming violent due to games can be produced through these areas. As for industry sources, relations towards the domestic sales of different games, such as between violent and family games, can help provide information on what people prefer to play, as a result producing certain criteria or opinions on these games.

Week 6

Scholarly Sources

Two sources that I have found to be using in my research are “Video’s game of life: playing games may actually help kids cope, a high-tech think tank has concluded,” which talks about the advantages of playing games are for people. Specifically children who play a lot of games, a group of highly tech-based people teamed up to develop RE:PLAY, an online form on gaming for everyone to access. Not only was it created in order to provide information about games, but for the community to interact with each other and learn something new. The second source I can across is “Video game on!: In a computer camp that turns young video game addicts into programmers, there is not a female student to be seen," it discusses about a learning program for children/teens to take in order to learn about programming and video game development. Real Programming 4 Kids, the class, is available for enrollment, where kids can become immersed in small sized classes on programming software like Java or Visual Basic. The title is pretty ironic, since all the current students are boys, but they attend the classes within a girls-only school.

Although they are not as long as I had wanted, the article do offer some good start information for my research, as I wish to support the idea that “video games can provide positive results,” one of them being the learning aspect for the new generations. Accessed from a database, it seems to me both articles come from a form of news post, which can be seen as a source. I came across these sources as I was looking about “video games” in the Canadian sources databases.

A basic keyword I wanted to start with was “video games.” At first, I was really reluctant to use these words, since I felt that it would be very difficult to find any sources from databases. For the first searches, I tried to look into current events databases, but came up with nothing. Afterwards, I looked into a technology database, but they provided a history of video games, which I did not need. The Canadian sources databases were my last resort, and it helped me, since it brought both of the two sources I have discussed as a result. After going through this search, I think I need to find databases that are more current/society based, ones that will talk about games in today’s issues.

Works Cited

Brieger, Peter. “Video game on!: In a computer camp that turns young video game addicts into programmers, there is not a female student to be seen.” National Post, 8 November 2000, C7, ProQuest.

Monk, Katherine. “Video’s game of life: playing games may actually help kids cope, a high-tech think tank has concluded.” The Vancouver Sun. 13 August 1999, B6, ProQuest.

Week 5

Popular Sources

A popular source can be used to describe other sources besides scholarly. While scholarly sources are made/created by experts in certain fields, such as peer-reviewed journal articles or academic books, popular sources are made by non-experts, for example journalists, writers and social media users. One is seen to be a more “reliable” source for the titles of the creators, but are often used to produce professional works of writings, especially in research. On the other hand, popular sources are available to everyone in the public spectrum, and don’t necessarily hold high accuracy for accountability. Many scholarly works are only accessible through schools or workplaces, such as universities, accessed by people from that area. On the other hand, popular sources can be found anywhere, particularly online.

If you need an article to reference your essay, scholarly sources are the best option. If you need an opinion piece on a reoccurring event, maybe a popular source could be helpful. Even so, if you wish to do thorough research, it is best to look over both kinds of works, as they can give you two very different aspects of ideas, opinions and thoughts. Credibility is determined on the overall presentation of references, or citations. Does this number in 2018 match up to the source they provide, or are they just making up random numbers? These are important factors to think about when looking through multiple articles.

For example, my article for my podcast, “WHO and critics’ panic over video games is unfounded”, takes the point of view of an avid gamer since childhood, and as they talk about the good aspects of gaming, it is quite obvious that they are bias. Rather than fighting against gaming, they completely support the activity, along with the countless positive outcomes to follow it. Regardless, their use of reliable sources/citations is not credible; multiple of the points given are said from their own ideas, rather than proper citation.

A keyword is a certain word that holds a degree of significance. Keywords can be used to locate certain ideas/concepts the person wishes to focus on more in their research. They also make researching a bit easier. A couple of keywords I have complied for my podcast are: happiness, diversity, understanding, communities, knowledge, creativity, learning and fate.

Phase Two

Week Eight: Outline & Ramble

The topic of my podcast is eco-conscious dieting (eco-dieting). I am working off of the opinion piece With changing tastes, flexitarianism is the most popular item on the menu (2018) by Professor Sylvian Charlebois.

The episode will begin with music and my voice will overlay it with a brief greeting to the listeners. From there the podcast will split into six sections. The pieces that I choose to feature in the episode will be integrated as characters if I find that the author in the piece says something I wish to directly agree with or oppose in words which I feel I cannot improve, or which might lose meaning if they are paraphrased. Other ‘character-pieces’ will appear as soundbites in the episode.


I will begin with a brief anecdote detailing experiences in the transformation of food culture in urbanized cities, and the global emergence of meat alternatives showing up in the food market. I will then get into the opinion piece With changing tastes, flexitarianism is the most popular item on the menu by Professor Sylvian Charlebois (2018). I will then get into my focus question, and the ultimate purpose of the episode. To do so, I introduce two preliminary questions that I will be exploring throughout the episode before I can adequately explore the focus question.

The first question is two part, it asks ‘what are eco- diets, and why do people adopt them?’ The second question lays out reasons people may opt out of eco-dieting with the question ‘why don’t people adopt eco-diets’? These lead us to the final question, ‘why are these diets, and the people though maintain them so disliked?’ or perhaps it will be stated closer to; ‘why is diet-activism such an emotionally volatile position?’ In this section, my primary outside source – Professor Charlebois article – will be acting as a character in the introduction.

Part One:

The First Question

The first question is about why people would adopt an eco-diet. In this section I explain the ethical, health/dietary, or personal/spiritual/religious reasons one might adopt an eco-diet. In it, I pull data from multiple sources, however, I pay specific attention to Becoming a Vegetarian by Dr. Maty L Galvin (2014). Yates-Doerr’s Meeting the demand for meat? (2012). Food consumption trends and drivers (2010), Raphaely and Marinova’s Flexitarianism: A more moral dietary option (2014), and the aptly named Motivations of the Ethical Consumer (2008).

In this section of the podcast, I will also be using an audio clip from Animals Australia’s What is factory farming? – Us and the planet (2012). This will make it a character in the episode.

Part Two:

The Second Question

Why aren’t people eco-dieters? This section will be based mostly global trends and will focus on the cultural, perceptional, health/dietary, and personal reasons people are still eating meat.

The primary articles I will be focusing on are Meeting the demand for meat, (2012), Global Meat Production and Consumption Continue to Rise (2011), and the longest title yet The influence of psychological traits, beliefs and taste responsiveness on implicit attitudes toward plant – and animal-based dishes among vegetarians, flexitarians and omnivores (2018). I hope the make the 2018 article a character in the episode. Once I have gone through some potential answers, I will conclude the section with an interview (hopefully). The interviewee will of course become a character in the episode.


Advertisements seem to be an intrinsic part of the Podcast genre. I wonder if I would be able to advertise my own podcast at this section.

Part Three:

The Focus Question

Why don’t people like eco-dieters? I look at three main sources for this section though only two of them are academic in nature. Katie Grant’s article Why do people hate vegans? A behavioural scientist and a food author explain (2019) becomes a character in the article, along with the vlogbrothers Hank Green’s Why Are Vegetarians Annoying? (An Exploration of a Cultural Rift) (2016) and Yan Chen and Sherry Xin Li’s article Group Identity and Social Preferences (2009). However, I also draw research from Thomas’s Why do vegans attract such hatred (2019). Other articles influence this section as well, but these are the are the most visible contributors.

In this section I will begin by outlining some of the basics of the us vs them mentality, and group identity theory. I will also discuss the results of going against the norm, and why changing the status quo might be uncomfortable. Then I will talk a little bit about virtue-signaling and how that may play into the public dislike of eco-dieters. Finally, I will introduce the aspect of activism, the ways eco-dieters chose to advertise their causes, what arguments they use, and how that may garner public unease.

The Closing

At the end of the episode I will take the opportunity to announce where I sourced my music from, and any audio clips I end up using in the episode. Then I will direct the listeners to the show notes, where I will have provided information about where to find sources I used in the episode and links to more information. Then I will thank the relevant parties; anyone I interviewed, anyone who helped with production, and anyone who helped with episode development. Finally, I will end the episode with some sort of tagline or quote, and some music.



Week Seven: Big Brother

Exhibit A

Exhibit A

Believe it or not, I actually ended up scouring government websites for the podcast episode before writing this blog post. Because my topic has to do with agriculture and farming practices, I wanted to look at some of the laws surrounding factory farming, food subsidies, and ethical guidelines surrounding farm animals. I was (like I expected to be) appalled by our legal concessions surrounding agriculture and farming as a whole. However, the information – while fascinating to me and useful in helping me form my own hypotheses – became no great piece of evidence in my episode.

Exhibit B

Exhibit B

Exhibit C

Exhibit C

Regardless, government, and school websites are wonderful research resources in general. They’re beneficial because they’re fairly objective glimpses at the way things are. If you’re looking for facts and laws as they are currently presented, the government databases are just about the best you can do. The Canadian government website in particular is fairly good about not conveying all their information in illegible legalese and indecipherable jargon – or at least when they do, they’re fairly decent at explaining it). Institutional websites, I have found, are exceptionally good sources for templates, and methods of research. They are also good at connecting those seeking information to the information they seek – an excellent middleman if you would. Though unless someone is doing their research directly about an institution, the school’s website alone is unlikely to provide much.


Week Six: Sources, Sources, Sources

Two sources that have been exceptionally helpful in my research have been Motivations of the Ethical Consumer (MEC) by Oliver M. Freestone and Peter J. McGoldrick, and Flexitarianism: A more moral dietary option (FMMDO) by Talia Raphaely and Dora Marinova.

In MEC, Freestone and Peter attempt to identify what has caused a shift in consumer values in regards to where they get their food. Their article looks at the differences between green-consumerism and ethical-consumerism. They also attempt to identify scales in ethical beliefs, and whether or not there is a potential tipping point towards one view or another (what makes someone go flexitarian and if so is there some sort of moral graduation into pescetarianism, or vegetarianism? Veganism?).

MEC has been invaluable in trying to answer the one of the questions I hypothesized in my audio pitch: “Why isn’t everyone on a flexitarian diet if not vegetarian or vegan?” (2019, Me)

To answer the first question I hypothesized in my audio pitch: “Why do people adopt [ethical] diets” (2019, Me), I have been consistently returning to FMMDO. In FMMDO Raphaely and Marinova make an excellent case for the moral condemnation of the current livestock industry. They talk about the essentiality of sustainable agricultural practices, and the consequences of irresponsible production and consumerism.

Both of these sources are scholarly because they’ve been written by academics, provide insight based on evidence referenced accurately and directly in the texts, and have been peer reviewed. Furthermore both sources have been published by reputable academic journals, and thus have been stringently reviewed for accuracy of statements and validity of evidence.

When I searched for ‘sustainable agriculture’ in a bio-science database my first results were explanatory documents; educational resources meant to teach readers about the science of agriculture. However, when I researched the same terms in a political-science database I was introduced to sources meant to explore the relationships between current farming practices and their effects on policy, and vice-versa.


Week Five: Words & Sources

A popular source is (in the broadest definition) a non-scholarly source. Popular sources tend to be written by members of the public, or people who are not recognized as experts in their fields. Sometimes a popular source will draw from academic/scholarly/accredited sources; or they may be written by accredited scholars, but the sources themselves may not be recognized as ‘reputable’.

Popular sources tend to lack citations, lack peer-reviews and may be recognized as well by their publishers (blogs, or magazines).

Despite its relative veracity, Wikipedia is often considered a ‘popular’ source.

Google describes a keyword as “an informative word used in an information retrieval system to indicate the content of a document”. Keywords are a systems way of categorizing and compiling data. For example if you were trying to find specific information, you would use keywords to indicate the subject matter of the documents you wanted to retrieve.

Because I am writing about sustainable dieting I have amassed a number of keywords:

  • Flexitarian

  • Vegan

  • Vegetarian

  • Sustainable

  • Food

  • Meat

  • Agriculture

  • Food Industry

  • Pollution

  • Diet

  • Factory Farming


Week 5 - Popular Sources & Key Words

A popular source is intended for the consumption of the general public as Professor Bell discussed. It is not necessarily unreliable it just used for specific purposes and it effective for different uses, It is usually used for academic scholarly purposes. Popular sources are written to be informative, persuasive and sometimes for pure entertainment.

There are indicators, that distinct a popular source from another type of source, they are usually sources that are for viewers of the general public. Some of these popular sources include blogs, op-ed pieces, Wikipedia, editorials, social media, journalism and more. These sources can prove to be useful due to their nature of being current and interactive with its readers. For an example, blogs have comment sections, where people can comment on their interpretation of the content they just read or provide helpful or constructive feedback in real time, especially if it was an opinion piece. An effective method of vetting a popular source’s credibility is asking questions about the content of the source like what is the reputation of the source or the source completely biased. Another method that could be effective is comparing it with scholarly material, Another method can be checking the author(s) of the source, to see their credibility. We can also use the PARCA test provided by York University to evaluate the popular source in-depth.

Keywords are useful in narrowing your research to sources that contain information/material on the topic of your search. It’s an efficient way to look through sources in a short amount of time. It’s important to compile keywords for research so you don’t broaden your search that ultimately will provide irrelevant research to your topic. My research topic is related to a bill that allowed full-term abortion, Some keywords I’ve composed are, 3rd-trimester abortion, Roe vs. Wade, Virginia law, CDC ( for statistics), abortion misconceptions and so forth.

Over the course of my research on the topic of Virginia’s bill proposal on easing state restrictions on third-trimester abortions, I found a couple of sources that were helpful. The first scholarly source was the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). This US government site provides accurate data and statistics on reproductive health. The second source I found helpful was a journal article, titled “What will become of reproductive issues in Trump’s America?” (Joffe, 2017). In this article, the author highlights the fear of the impact of Trump’s presidency on reproductive rights. This article explores the topic of reproductive rights in a timely manner that is beneficial for me as the topic I’ve chosen is a current social issue.

Week 6 - Scholarly Sources

Over the course of my research on the topic of Virginia’s bill proposal on easing state restrictions on third trimester abortions, I found a couple of sources that were helpful. The first scholarly source was CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). This US government site provides accurate data and statistics on reproductive health. The second source I found helpful was a journal article, titled “What will become of reproductive issues in Trump’s America?” (Joffe, 2017). In this article the author highlights the fear of the impact Trump’s presidency in reproductive rights. This article explores the topic of reproductive rights in a timely manner that is beneficial for me as the topic I’ve chosen is a current social issue.

What is a scholarly source? In order to identify a scholarly source, as we did with the popular source we assess the intended audience. Scholarly source are created for academic purposes. These sources are usually peer-reviewed and cited which are reliable. Scholarly sources are often authored by researchers or scholars, like a professor for example. They are also accessible through libraries and online databases (McMaster Libraries, 2016). Scholarly sources have many identifiable traits, such as the content and language that is used, it is formal and the terminology is specific and detailed.

In my experience, while conducting research for my topic, I found that using both the humanities and science databases served to be very useful. For my search, I used the keyword (or term) late-term abortion and found that I discovered very different scholarly sources. In the humanities database, I found many articles with content related to the social implications and effects of late-term abortion. It covered information on laws and history. The science databases, however, compiled sources that were in the medical field or health-related, and more. These sources heavily use medical terminology as well. Through this experience, I’ve learned that using multiple databases can prove to be helpful in broadening sources and collecting research/data that covers the topic of search exceptional as opposed to using only one database, which limits my research. This provides me with a myriad of data from multiple angles if you will that will present my points well rounded.


McMaster Libraries. (2016, February 24). Scholarly vs Popular sources [YouTube Channel]. Retrieved from

Scholarly Sources



Phase Two:

Week #8: Podcast Episode Outline

Episode Outline: 

Topic: The Rise of Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents.

Opinion Piece: “Run, Swim, Cook: The New Prescription for happiness,” written by a Guardian columnist named, Gaby Hinsliff. 

Focus Question: Are anxiety disorders in adolescents on the incline because of the busy, hectic, schedules, and the overwhelming society they live in? 

Significance/so what/stakes: We can provide adolescents with recommendations on how to reduce anxiety, suggest they look into therapy, medicine, or other potential methods of treatment, but all the advice in the world isn’t going to solve the main issue. The main problem is that adolescents have difficulty in taking care of their anxiety disorder because of their busy schedules and because they always trying to adhere to society’s overwhelming expectations.

For the introduction of my podcast, I will provide my listener with a background on anxiety. I will define what an anxiety disorder is, and provide an explanation on how it affects the brain and body and interferes with the activities of everyday life. I will deliver my listener with the statics of adolescent anxiety rates. For example, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, “About 30% of girls and 20% of boys—totalling6.3 million teens—have had an anxiety disorder.” I plan on using statistical information to demonstrate to my listener how prevalent this disorder is amongst today’s adolescents. I want to use scientists/researchers, as possible characters in the episode when it comes to the discussion of statistics.

In the middle of my podcast, I will outline and propose different reasons based on research why adolescents are more prone now than ever to developing anxiety. The first reason I want to look at is school expectations and University admission requirements. Due to grades and exam scores, and being eligible candidates for Universities, adolescents are experiencing high levels of anxiety and school-related stress. Many adolescents, especially adolescents with anxiety, constantly worry about meeting academic demands, pleasing and satisfying both parents and teachers, as well as keeping up with their friends and classmates’ academic achievements. Another reason that contributes to the rise of anxiety rates is students struggling to balance finishing their homework while upholding a part-time job. From bouncing between school and work, students have no free time to socialize with their friends, or relax, and do an activity that they enjoy that will reduce their stress and overall anxiety. Student debt is another huge stress factor in an adolescent’s life, especially since tuition and residency fees are so staggeringly high. Kathleen Smith writes for the PSYCOM, “For teens, the most commonly reported sources of stress are school (83 percent), getting into a good college or deciding what to do after high school (69 percent), and financial concerns (65 percent).” 

Another cause of anxiety is the demands of social media. Adolescents are becoming so caught up in maintaining a popular presence on social media platforms that it can cause them extreme anxiety and stress. Megan Moreno, who is the head of social media and adolescent health research at Seattle Children’s Hospital, claims that “Sometimes phones rob teens’ developing brains of essential downtime.” 

I will conclude my podcast by emphasizing how crucial it is that adolescents are provided with more free time, so they can properly take of their anxiety and mental health, and spend time doing activities they enjoy that will ultimately improve their anxiety and mental well-being.

Audio Link:

References List: 

Schrobsdorff, S. (n.d.). What's Causing Depression And Anxiety In Teens? Retrieved from 

Smith, K. (n.d.). 6 Common Triggers of Teen Stress. Retrieved from

Week #7: Government Sources

I discovered that on the government of Canada’s website, there is a section that discusses Mental Health disorders, and in particular, Anxiety Disorders. This article was created in collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada. On this page, the government provides an overview defining what an anxiety disorder is, the different types and also states that anxiety affects one in ten Canadians. As you proceed to read the complete article, the government includes potential methods of treatment for an individual dealing with this disorder. The government details that anxiety can be treated through what they call as a “combination of drug therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT).” The government addresses that the most common drug prescriptions are anti-depressants and anti-anxiety drugs. The government explains that cognitive-behavioural therapy can help people turn their anxious and irrational thoughts into calm and rational ones. The article points out ways that an individual can improve and reduce their anxiety under a section called, “Minimizing Your Risk.” Proposed examples include the following: exercising, practising yoga, breathing exercises, getting plenty of sleep, avoiding the intake of caffeine and so on. I found that this article included information that was useful and relevant, but it also can be a way for me to address the fact that people don’t have enough time to properly take care of their mental health because of their demanding work, school, and family obligations. The government can propose all the helpful recommendations they want, but it’s not going to solve the heart of the problem—people don’t have enough time to properly take care of their mental well-being, which can worsen existing anxiety disorders, and or can lead an individual to develop one as a result.

Reference List:

Canada, H. (2009, July 22). Mental Health - Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved from


Week #6: Scholarly Sources

Scholarly sources are written by expert individuals in a specific field. Their purpose is to surmise and analyze research, news, and recent findings in a particular area. The first scholarly article that I think will be helpful with my episode is called, “Anxiety Disorders.” This article was written by Jon Nash and John Potokar. When I begin my podcast episode, I want to provide my audience with context on what an anxiety disorder is before I proceed to outline the different reasons that are behind the rapid incline of anxiety disorders amongst adolescents. This article provides the reader with extensive details on what anxiety is, and the effects it has on an individual’s mind and body. For example, it explains that Generalized Anxiety Disorder is, “excessive worry about various things for at least 6 months.” This article examines the physical symptoms of anxiety, and mentions that it can lead to symptoms such as, “muscle tension, heart palpitations, hot flashes, sweating, chest pain, churning stomach, light-headedness…” I discovered this article by searching “Anxiety Disorders” into the search bar for Scholars Portal.

The second article I am using is called, “The Clinical phenomenology and classification of child and adolescent anxiety.” Antonio Castro Fonseca and Sean Perrin wrote this article. This article provides more information about the negative effects of anxiety and compares the percentage of anxiety rates in children with teenagers. This article states that anxiety is, “child or adolescent worry about multiple situations and activities (e.g. the future,) accompanied by several other problems, including restlessness, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, and somatic complaints.” It also states that anxiety rates tend to be lower in 6-12-year-olds in comparison to adolescents between the ages of 12-18 years old. I discovered this article by searching “anxiety rates and adolescents” into the search bar for Google Scholar.          

I searched the keywords, “Anxiety rates in adolescents” on Scholars Portal under the subject of Arts and Humanities. The first search result that appeared was an article called, “Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with intellectual disability: prevalence and assessment.” It was written by Tessa C. Reardon, Kylie M. Gray, and Glenna A. Melvin. I searched the same keywords on Scholars Portal under the subject of Law, and I found an article called, “Social anxiety disorder and victimization in a community sample of adolescents.” The authors of this article were Malin Gren-Landell, Nikolas Aho, and Gerhard Anderson. It is evident to me based on the titles and synopsis provided of these articles that they do not in any way relate or correlate with the discussion and argument I am making in my specific podcast episode. 

References List:

Fonseca, A. C., & Perrin, S. (n.d.). The clinical phenomenology and classification of child and 

  adolescent anxiety. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents,25-55. 


Nash, J., & Potokar, J. (2004). Anxiety disorders. Medicine, 32(7), 17-21. 


Week #5: Popular Sources & Key Words

Popular sources can be found in general internet publications such as newspapers and magazines. Popular sources from reputable publications can provide a good background of information; these publications can be the following examples, The New York Times or Time Magazine. These examples would be considered to be credible because they are factual, accurate, they properly source their information, and they also have well-respected journalists and editors contributing to the creation of each issue. Popular sources often include stories and personalized opinions based upon a topic that can help enrich your research by giving it more depth. Popular sources can also be useful because they explain concepts and ideas in a more straightforward language that is easier for the general public to comprehend, whereas, scholarly sources are written in a complex and jargonized language. Furthermore, popular sources are easily accessible to all.  

Two examples of popular sources, I plan on using in my podcast, are the Globe And Mail, and Time Magazine. The article I selected from Globe And Mail is called, “Number of Ontario teens with psychological distress rising at alarming rate: study. This article relates to my podcast because it discusses how a worrisome and increasing number of high-schoolers are describing their lives as being “anxiety-inducing, and stress-filled.” This article also explores the concept that older teens felt that the reason behind their anxiety and stress is caused by the overwhelming society they live in. In the article it states, “[…] older teens are also worried about student debt and the job market, and feeling overwhelmed by the demands of social media.”

The second article I selected is from Time Magazine, and it is called, “Teen Depression and Anxiety: Why the Kids Are Not Alright.” I want to focus on the discussion of anxiety in the article because my podcast will be discussing how anxiety rates are on the incline for adolescents because of the overwhelming society that we live in. In this article, they discuss how anxiety in high school kids has been on the rise since 2013. I also plan on incorporating a few personal stories that are mentioned in the article about individuals recounting their experiences with living with an anxiety disorder while facing the pressures of everyday life.

A keyword is a specific word that describes and explains the content on your page or your post. It would be considered a search term that you want to use for a particular page, so people can search this keyword into a search engine so that they can locate a specific page on your website. The keywords that I have compiled are the following: anxiety disorder, anxiety rates amongst adolescents, teen anxiety statistics, teen anxiety survey, and reasons behind the rise of teen anxiety.

References List:

Anderssen, E. (2018, May 17). Number of Ontario teens with psychological distress rising at 

 alarming rate: Study. Retrieved from



Schrobsdorff, S. (n.d.). What's Causing Depression And Anxiety In Teens? Retrieved from










Phase Two

Week Five:

As discussed by Stephanie in this week’s video lecture, a popular source is one that “was not primarily written to be used by academics for scholarly purposes.” This includes things like blog posts, non-fiction books, and the opinion pieces used as the basis for our podcast episodes. I think the easiest way to distinguish whether or not something is a popular source is to look at where it was published to get a sense of who is reading it. For example, an article published in Refinery 29 is for an audience of young women, like myself, to read for entertainment or leisure purposes, making that article a popular source.

I have actually been using a lot of the methods in the PARCA test when evaluating the credibility of popular sources I’ve come upon in my research so far. One of the first things I look for is when the source was published to make sure whatever information I gather from it is still current. I also like to look up the author to see if they have any claim to authority regarding the topic. I’ve found these two especially helpful in the project so far.

Keywords are those that work to identify the most important concepts about a particular topic, and they’re important because knowing them will make the research process less tedious. Some keywords that have been helpful in my research so far are: missing and murdered Indigenous women an girls, truth and reconciliation, national inquiry, anti-Indigenous racism, and Indigenous women’s activism.

Week Seven:

While sometimes government, industry, and institutional sources can be overlooked in the research process, they have proved incredibly useful for my purposes in this project because my episode is political in nature. I have found that institutional sources really complement the arguments made in the scholarly sources I plan to use about police violence against Indigenous women. When comparing a report from the RCMP about missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls to a fact sheet compiled by the Native Women’s Association of Canada, the inconsistencies between state and activist data highlighted the strained relationship between Indigenous women and law enforcement. The RCMP’s report suggests that the number of missing and murdered cases is just under 1200, while the NWAC’s fact sheet would suggest that the number of cases is much higher because the projection does not include older cases. These sources have helped me to fully craft the narrative that is coming through in my scholarly research.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2014). Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women: A National Operational Overview. Retrieved from

Native Women’s Association of Canada. (n.d.). Fact Sheet: Missing and Murdered Aboriginal Women and Girls. Retrieved from _Aboriginal_Women_and_Girls.p

Week Eight:
Episode Outline:

  • Introductory music

  • Story of Tina Fontaine followed by a brief silence.

  • Provide more context regarding the scope of the issue of missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls in Canada. This will be the part where I mention that Tina Fontaine was “a catalyst for change,” as Niigaan Sinclair wrote in the opinion article I am responding to, since the outrage following her death sparked the Liberal government’s national inquiry. Here I want to stress that for Indigenous communities across Canada, it felt like the government was finally listening.

  • This is where I plan to “flip the script.” Family members of missing and murdered women have expressed their disappoint with the way that the inquiries have been conducted (Coletta, 2018), and the Native Women’s Association of Canada has released three report cards since the inquiry’s inception that have found in failing in many critical aspects. Activists have been vocal for decades about the way state institutions, particularly law enforcement, fuel violence against Indigenous women. The inquiry is merely dancing around the fact that state institutions are complicit in this violence, as exemplified by Tina Fontaine’s story.

  • Looking at the ways that police violence manifests against Indigenous women.

  • Physical and sexual violence: “The majority of incidents involving allegations of police sexualized violence against Indigenous women and girls (at least those that have been publicized) appear to have been addressed as employee discipline matters rather than being prosecuted as sexual assault crimes” (Palmater, 2016).

  • Police often do not take the disappearances of Indigenous women seriously: “Many Indigenous families told Amnesty International that police did little when they reported a sister or daughter missing and seemed to be waiting for the woman to be found” (Olsen Harper, 2006).

  • Indigenous women feel apprehensive to contact law enforcement if they need to: “Because of the documented racism of Canada’s police forces, criminal justice system, and jails, racialized women may be reluctant to call police in cases of domestic assault out of loyalty to their family and community, or because they do not wish to fuel racist stereotypes about their community or to subject themselves or family members to a racist system” (CRIAW).

  • Addressing what activists suggest to make justice accessible to Indigenous women. In this part of my podcast I will be interviewing Shannon Courtemanche-Cormier, an Indigenous activist who works with Indigenous youth in Winnipeg, to explore the ways she thinks accessibility to justice could be achieved.  

  • Note that this is only one aspect of the very complex issue of systemic racism which causes violence against Indigenous women. However, holding police accountable would be a true catalyst for change. At this point, I would like to explore how differently the night of Tina Fontaine’s death would have gone if the police had actually protected her.

  • Since the content of my podcast is very disturbing, I would like to try and end on a lighter note. In the conclusion, I will reiterate that the national inquiry is not igniting the change that was hoped for, but fortunately, it has started a conversation. As long as we continue to be vocal about injustice and hold the state and its institutions accountable, we can keep the ball rolling until we start to see some real change. Outro music.


Coletta, A. (2018, 12 May). Canada’s inquiry into missing and murdered indigenous

women gets a failing grade. The Washington Post.  Retrieved from https://www.


Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women (CRIAW). Women’s Experience

of Racism: How Race and Gender Interact. In M. Hobbs and C. Rice (Eds.), Gender

and Women’s Studies in Canada: Critical Terrain (234-245). Toronto: Women’s Press.

Native Women’s Association of Canada. (2018, 7 May). The National Inquiry into Missing

and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls; NWAC Report Card. Retrieved from

Olsen Harper, Anita. (2006). Is Canada Peaceful and Safe for Aboriginal Women? Canadian

Women’s Studies, 25, 33-38.


Palmater, Pamela. (2016, August). Shining Light on the Dark Places: Addressing Police

Racism and Sexualized Violence against Indigenous Women and Girls in the National

Inquiry. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 28, 253-284. doi: 10.3138/cjwl.


Sinclair, N. (2018, 27 December). A heartbreaking catalyst for change. Winnipeg Free

Press. Retrieved from


First episode outline done in tutorial.

First episode outline done in tutorial.

Phase Two

Week Five: Popular Sources

A popular source is something like Wikipedia, it’s a source that is easily understood by the public and rarely gives citations or references for sources. For example with Wikipedia, for a very long time people warned others about it because it is not always credible but sometimes it can be, you just have to look for who wrote the information. You never really know with some popular sources like Wikipedia, sometimes it could be some random guy writing about Plato or Aristotle, and the next time it could be a Harvard professor writing about Plato and Aristotle, it is very unpredictable.

A keyword is basically a specific word that you type into a search engine in order to get a precise search of what you want. For example when I was doing a major research paper on Shakespeare’s “The Taming of the Shrew” I wrote the word “Dominance” along with the name of the play into google scholar and multiple articles popped up about dominance in '“The Taming of the Shrew”.

The use of keywords is very significant because instead of doing countless in depth searches that ultimately lead to nowhere, you are able to just type in this keyword that stands out from what you’re looking for and you will find information on it instantly.

Week Six: Scholarly Sources

During the course of working on and enhancing my podcast episode, the two scholarly articles that have helped me the best are “Black Panther’ and the Revenge of the Black Nerds” and “Black Panther’ inspires more than African Americans”. The first article mentions that the film ‘Black Panther’ paints a new hero for black nerds. This article adds another perspective to my podcast because this article talks about being finally able to feel comfortable about being a nerd in the African American community and how ‘Black Panther’ set the stage for becoming more comfortable with you are and in this case a black nerd. The second article discusses the fact that the film reached out to more than just African Americans. Within this article, the author mentions that ‘Black Panther’ gives him hope that Arab Americans and Muslims will be represented on the big screen in that way. It also talks about how ‘Black Panther’ was widely viewed and praised for its values in the Arab American culture.

A scholarly source is basically a source with credibility and one that has a reputable background and with these two sources that is very evident. A scholarly source can include news articles and multiple other platforms and both sources have reputable publishers.

When it comes to finding scholarly articles I have experience with using keywords and when it comes to finding these particular articles, the keyword is “Hope”. An efficient outlet to finding such articles that I use often is google scholar.

Works Cited

Ware, L. (2018, February 16). 'Black Panther' and the Revenge of the Black Nerds. Retrieved from

Obeidallah, D. (2018, February 18). 'Black Panther' inspires more than African Americans. Retrieved from

Week Seven: Other Sources

When working on a project or podcast that requires an abundance of research, I find it useful to try and use as many sources as possible to gather an efficient amount of information or research. This even means looking at government, industry, or institutional sources and even with the York University website, because the facilities that are available on the website or through the library are extensive. For my podcast the facilities and search engines through the library website are helpful, but it is difficult to search for my specific topic, so I have found that looking up different points within my podcast helps, like the topic of black history month and the mentions of slavery. These particular sources are often more detailed and structured and are often not the first choice for information but they act as a very resourceful research tool.

Week Eight: Podcast Outline

Topic: The overall impact of ‘Black Panther’ on the African American community

Opinion Piece: ‘Black Panther’ Started The Most Vital (And Uncomfortable) Conversations Of 2018, discusses the way ‘Black Panther’ made people revisit their culture and get in touch with their ancestral roots and being more open and aware to talking about slavery and the dark times of the African American culture

Focus Question: What does this superhero and this movie do in order to get people talking about this issue more openly?

Significance/so what/ stake: This shows that a movie about a superhero is able to connect with a wide majority of the population on such a vast scale that any other movie about superhero’s cannot come close too. Another point is that this “Marvel” does not confine itself to the regular Marvel movie standards, it moves on its own and presents itself as way more than just your average superhero movie, it is a civil rights movement for the African American community.

In my audio outline I mention that the intro will be around 3-4 minutes and that the body will be around 10-13 minutes.

I will also introduce my topic (Black Panther and how it opened us all up to the idea of discussing issue about slavery and other sensitive topics)

I will also talk about the structure of the episode and when the music and effects will be introduced

I am also going to discuss when to introduce my sources which include; ‘Black Panther’ Started The Most Vital (And Uncomfortable) Conversations of 2018”, ‘Black Panther’ and the Revenge of the Black Nerds”, ‘Black Panther’ Inspires more than just African Americans”

I will also mention the multiple points for the body, which include; the movie reaching to just more than African Americans and the mention of an Arabic superhero and the point about “Blade” and how that film did not have the same effect as “Black Panther”

I will mention the conclusion and how long it will be, which is approx. around three minutes and how closing music will be included at the end



Works Cited

Hubbard, Shanita. “Opinion | 'Black Panther' Started The Most Vital (And Uncomfortable) Conversations Of 2018.” The Huffington Post,, 21 Dec. 2018,

Ware, L. (2018, February 16). 'Black Panther' and the Revenge of the Black Nerds. Retrieved from

Obeidallah, D. (2018, February 18). 'Black Panther' inspires more than African Americans. Retrieved from








Week Eight: Overview

Topic: Censoring Offensive Humour

Opinion Piece: Weaver & Morgan, The Conversation: Offensive humour is directly related to our morals as a society, it marginalizes groups of people, normalizes bad behaviour and ultimately should be avoided when possible.

Focus Question: Should offensive humour be censored?

Significance/so what/stakes: As censorship increases governments and industries now have more control over what information people receive and the power to restrict free speech.

Left on the cutting room floor: Wider scope of considering if offensive humour is acceptable.



  • Explaining the subjectivity of “offensive humour”

Definition of offensive humour/ Context

  • What is offensive humour and how it has been treated in history (brief)

Bucaria, C., & Barra, L. (Eds.). (2016). Taboo comedy : Television and controversial humour. Retrieved from

Weaver, S. (2011). Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet. Ethnicities, 11(4), 413-435. Retrieved from

Weaver, S. (2010). The 'Other' Laughs Back: Humour and Resistance in Anti-racist Comedy. Sociology, 44(1), 31-48. Retrieved from

What is the point of offensive humour? (opinion piece)

  • Summarize the opinion and major points of the authors

Weaver, Simon., & Karen, Morgan. (2017, May 9). What is the point of offensive humour? TheConversation. Retrieved From

Criticizing the article

  • Pointing out inconsistencies and problematic claims

Basmajian, S. (Producer), & Taylor, D. (Director). (2000) Redskins, Tricksters and Puppy Stew[Motion Picture]. Canada: National Film Board of Canada (NFB).

LOCKYER, S., & PICKERING, M. (2001). Dear shit-shovellers: Humour, censure and the discourse of complaint. Discourse & Society, 12(5), 633-651. Retrieved from

Driessen, H. (2016). Afterword: Humour Matters. Etnofoor, 28(1), 141-146. Retrieved from

Topic question: Should we censor offensive humour?

  • Building off the claims of the opinion piece and then my brief counter claims

  • Current constraints on offensive humour, why they are in place

  • Certain amount of censorship is necessary, too much is problematic


  • Supporting my point that race/culture isn’t always visually identifiable

The benefits of offensive humour (why it shouldn't be censored)

  • Proven results of offensive humour: coping strategy, satire, thought provoking..etc

Gilgun, J., & Sharma, A. (2012). The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families. The British Journal of Social Work, 42(3), 560-577. Retrieved from

The importance of free speech

  • Highlights the problems with censorship

  • Unclear lines and problematic power dynamics

Harvey, C. (2002). The Right to Free Expression. Fortnight, (402), 18-19. Retrieved from

Lee, J. (2015). Assaults of Laughter. Studies in American Humor, 1(1), V-Xiv. doi:10.5325/studamerhumor.1.1.000v

My opinion and summary

  • Offensive humour (like most things in life) as the potential to be problematic, but mass censorship is not the answer. Freedom of speech and expression does society good and thus should not be prohibited.

  • Summarize how a certain amount of censorship is needed (examples), too much presents its own set of problems

Week Seven: Other Sources

When doing research, I have found that it is important to consider a wide range of sources. This helps to eliminate personal biases and to widen your understanding of views that oppose your own. I personally enjoy scouring various policy documents from government, industry or institutional sources as they help me to understand the current legal constraints surrounding the censorship of “offensive humour”.

I have found that, industries or “governments at all levels can be great sources of useful data and analysis” (2018).These sets of data and analysis can be helpful by providing my listeners with context regarding the censorship debate, and its current situation. It is particularly useful to use this information to support my claims, as generally official documents are trusted information. However, when discussing problems within the current policies regarding the censorship of “offensive humour”, comparing the potentially varying data between the government and industry reports can help to highlight the very issues in which I find to be problematic. Therefore, I am using this information to allow my readers to come to my opinion of their own volition.

Bodnar, Mark. ( August 16, 2018) Government Sources for Business Research, Simon Fraser University. Retrieved From



Week Six: Scholarly Sources

As I continue my research for my podcast I have found the articles “Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet” (2011) and “The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families” (2012) particularly helpful for my work.

I have tried to expose myself to a wide range of opinions and research regarding the limitations of “offensive humour.” I have done both targeted internet searches using keywords, and large scale multimedia inquiries on a broader scale (2011). I have found that I have the most success searching through English Writing databases, as satire and sarcasm are abundant throughout English Literature. However, the most helpful articles I have found have been within the Political databases. These articles often detail the relationship between humour and society. Specifically how it is used as a tool in the media to help spread political awareness and tackle controversial issues.

I have determined that “The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families” by A. Sharma and J. Gilgun is a scholarly source because it has been “written by experts in a particular field and [serves] to keep others interested in that field, up to date on the most recent research, findings, and news” (U of I). I also used the PARCA test, which includes asking questions regarding the article’s purpose, authority, relevance, currency and accuracy. The article was relatively recently published in 2012, it has been peer reviewed before publication, and it explores how the use of humour in social work is an ongoing debate. When I consider authority of the authors (U of T), one of the authors of the article, Alankaar Sharma is currently a professor at the University of Sidney and has also worked as a social work researcher, practitioner, and trainer in India and the USA. The other author, Jane Gilgun, is a professor in the Department of Social work at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities. Therefore, both authors are in good authority to write this article. Throughout the article, they back up their claims with evidence. All this to say that this article exploring how humour, sometime even subjective or “offensive humour,” can benefit the recovery process of troubled youth, is a scholarly source.

The other scholarly article that has been particularly helpful is “Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet” by Simon Weaver. I am already aware of Simon Weaver’s authority because he is one of the author’s of the argument piece that my podcast is in response to (2017). Thus, I know he is a lecturer in Media and Communications, at Brunel University. Furthermore, I know this is one of many articles he has written regarding the topic of “offensive humour.” The article itself is peer reviewed and published in an academic journal, it includes references for all claims, refers to current debates and was published in 2011, thereby fitting all the above requirements of a scholarly article. This article has been particularly helpful to my research as it not only provided a plethora of helpful studies and facts based around racist humour, but also helps me to better understand the bias under which the article “What is the point of offensive humour?” (2017), my podcast topic was written.

Gilgun, J., & Sharma, A. (2012). The Uses of Humour in Case Management with High-Risk Children and their Families. The British Journal of Social Work, 42(3), 560-577. Retrieved from

Illinois University Library. (n.d) Determine If a Source Is Scholarly. 2018 University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Retrieved From

Klems, Brian, A. (24 October, 2011) How to Improve Your Researching Skills and Write Accurately. Writer’s Digest. Retrieved From

ResearchGate. (n.d) Jane Gilgun. University of Minnesota Twin Cities | UMN · Department of Social Work. Retrieved From

University of Sydney. (n.d) Alankaar Sharma. Academia. Retrieved From

University of Toronto. (n.d) What counts as a scholarly source? University of Toronto Libraries. Retrieved From

Weaver, S. (2011). Jokes, rhetoric and embodied racism: A rhetorical discourse analysis of the logics of racist jokes on the internet. Ethnicities, 11(4), 413-435. Retrieved from

Weaver, Simon., & Karen, Morgan. (2017, May 9). What is the point of offensive humour? The Conversation. Retrieved From

Week Five: Popular sources

A popular source is a source that is not necessarily written for scholarly purposes but simply for pubic consumption. These sources can be anything from blogs to social media. Although they are not intended for academic use, they can still be quite useful to many academics.

First of all, popular sources often offer simpler and easier information. Therefore, they allow readers to gain a better understanding of a topic. These popular sources can add context to a professional viewpoint. They can also show public opinion as well as public knowledge regarding certain subjects. As an academic, this can help you cater your work to your intended audience (which in most cases is still public).

When doing research as a writer it is important to be able to evaluate the credibility of your source. One way in which you can do this is by using the PARCA test. The PARCA test includes asking questions regarding the article’s purpose, authority, relevance, currency and accuracy.

I applied the PARCA test to the article “Can you define offensive humour?” finding it to be a rather unreliable source of information. To begin, this article is written for public entertainment purposes. The language is very casual and throughout the piece there are advertisements asking readers to support the Guardian by giving money. The author is a journalist for the Guardian and by no means an authority on the constraints of humour. This article is quite relevant as the idea of censoring comedians is very controversial, as some argue it infringes on the right to free speech. However, this article is not very current, as it was written in 2010. That being said, the age of the article does help to show the longevity of this ongoing comedy debate. Finally, there are very few sources listed throughout the article, many points rely on opinion based facts and subjective biases. All this to say that “Can you define offensive humour?” is not a reliable source.

In my search for information regarding my topic of offensive humour, keywords are very important in helping me refine my search. Keywords are words that are crucial to your topic that can help narrow down the research process. Some keywords I have complied are: coping strategies, comedy, satire, sarcasm, free speech, limitations and power.

MacInnes, Paul. (2010, April 9). Can you define offensive humour? The Guardian. Retrieved from

PHASE ONE: Introduction

Week 1

Hello Everyone!

My name is Angel (yes that is my real name)! I am in the Professional Writing program in my first year. I am 22 years old and I live in Bradford, but I have lived in Brampton for most of my life. A few things I can tell you about myself are that I love music, I am very passionate about making, producing and creating it! I play the piano, guitar, and bass but especially love the guitar. I love books, non-fiction ones and sometimes fiction! I am an extrovert so I love being around friends and family and I am currently obsessed with personality tests and enneagrams. I enjoy photography, traveling, and comedy. I love a good laugh… I mean who doesn’t?

This course project sounds interesting, and being a fan of podcasts I think this would be quite the experience to learn and craft an episode! I am looking forward to it and maybe one day create my own!

The first thing that I can think of as a research tactic, especially for millennials would be google. As an undergraduate student, I found myself searching google scholar for articles and sources. I find that it’s commonly used among my school peers. I think it’s helpful because for 1) it’s convenient compared to going to an actual library. Secondly, for students that don’t have access to databases researching for a a project is extremely hard. However, what I find limiting about google scholar is that I have to spend a lot of time scrolling through and “vetting” the sources. Whereas, on a database, I can trust the sources.